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The number and size of daily portions will stem from protein deficits and energy needs in individual diets. It is worth using in the morning on an empty stomach, during longest breaks between meals and before and after training. Using immediately after physical effort will cause regeneration of depleted glycogen supplies and provide fast-absorbing protein. Using with milk with high fat content will additionally increase its energy value and the amount of protein and make the supplement portion a balanced meal substitute.
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The energy value is determined by the chemical composition of the food product, by means of the so-called. physiological equivalents energy., determining the value of metabolic energy contained in 1 g of the component. Most commonly used is the equivalent of Atwater: protein 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates 4kcal/g, and for fat 9kcal/g.
Proteins (proteins, polypeptides) is a polymer, of which the basic units (monomers) are amino acids. Protein is composed of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, and is an elementary nutrient necessary for the proper functioning of the body, an ingredient and a component of tissues, part of the hormones and enzymes and other bioactive substances. Protein determines the proper metabolism and energy processes, as well as all other life processes. The sources of natural proteins are foods of animal origin (including meat, fish, eggs, dairy products) and plant origin (legumes, soy). Deficiency of protein leads to protein malnutrition and a significant weakening of the body. It can lead to anaemia, reduced immunity, muscle relaxation, disorders of the digestive system. Also, overdose protein is undesirable because it can lead to acidification of the body, and interfere with the digestive system and an increase in the concentration of homocysteine in the blood. It is a component of many supplements and nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body, both showing a low physical activity, or training the strength and endurance competitions.
Dosage: strength athletes: approx. 1.7 - 2.5 g / 1 kg of body weight; endurance athletes and strength -endurance athletes approx. 1.3 - 2 g / 1 kg of body weight, people with low activity approx. 0.8 - 1.1 g / 1 kg of body weight / 24h. In estimating the amount of protein, you should take into account the intake of other nutrients (carbohydrates and fats)
Carbohydrates are an essential nutrient. They are divided into: simple sugars (monosaccharides), disaccharides and polysaccharides. In terms of the human bioavailability of carbohydrates is divided into: digestabe, those which are digested in the gastrointestinal tract by transferring energy to the tissues or cells (such as starch, fructose) and indigestable, resistant to digestive enzymes (e.g. cellulose) . Affects blood glucose levels (glycemic index) and the metabolism of insulin (insulin index). The greatest demand for carbohydrates occurs before physical activity or in the middle of it, because they increase the exercise capacity, consumed after exercise provide regeneration. In the sports diet the absorption rate it is important of carbohydrates and reactions of the organism. Available in mono-preparation supplements and part of the energetic supplements, creatine stacks, nitrogen boosters.
Dosage: according to the statistics of the Institute of Food and Nutrition, carbohydrates should comprise about 50% of daily energy intake. In some diets, used residual carbohydrate consumption, not exceeding 30g / 24h.
Fat is an essential nutrient plant and animal organisms. Because of the nutritional value and composition of fats are divided into: saturated (mono-saturated and multi-saturated fatty acids) and unsaturated fatty acids (including essential fatty acids - EFA). The group of lipids include lipids (triacylglycerols, waxes), complex fats (glycolipids, phospholipids), sterols and isoprenoids. Saturated fatty acids is a group of fatty acids having different carbon chain lengths, in which except for the carboxyl group, each of the carbon atoms is bound by a single bond. May adversely affect the lipid profile, so they can be used in limited quantities. Fats are a concentrated source of energy, with different flavours, facilitating the consumption and swallowing of food. They have building functions (part of cell membranes and co-create the white matter of the brain). EFAs are precursors of tissue hormones and biologically active compounds. The unsaturated fatty acids include fatty acids from the group Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 (the last digit indicates, on which, counting of the end of the chain, there is a double bond in the appropriate carbon chain. The essential fatty acids include: acids, medium-Omega-3 [n-3 ] included in EFAs [essential fatty acids], and long chain (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) Omega-6 and Omega-9. the number indicates that the last double bond in the carbon chain is on the third from the end carbon atom. The acids from the omega 3 group are essential components of cell membranes, they are precursors of eicosanoids and biological activators. They must be combined with ingestion in suitable proportions of Omega-6 acids.
Dosage: Depending on demand and applied diet. It is generally accepted that fats should constitute 20-30% of the energy (calorie) of meals daily.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Nicotinic acid amide – also known as nicotinamide, belongs to a group of compounds referred to as vitamin B3, along with nicotinic acid and inositol hexanicotinate. It exerts its main biological activity as a precursor to two key coenzymes for efficient energy metabolism of the body: nicotinamide adenine dinucletodide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. They are responsible for carrying hydrogen and electrons in the respiratory chain and thus facilitate efficient energy production by the human body.
Nicotinamide supplementation is recommended for active persons not only because of its ability to promote the body’s energy efficiency. It has also a beneficial impact on mind, increases tolerance to stressors and may reduce symptoms of depression. It is pointed out that niacin supplementation correlates positively with sleep quality.
Unlike nicotinic acid, nicotinamide does not show the ability to produce a “flush effect”, namely redness in the face caused by taking large doses of niacin. It has been also shown to influence partly cardiovascular function.
Nicotinamide is also indicated to influence beneficially the absorption of other B vitamins and vitamin D. This compound should be taken with caution by diabetics because it can increase the body’s demand for insulin.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
Vitamin B5 (calcium pantothenate, pantothenic acid, pantotenol) is part of a complex of B vitamins affects the development of the central nervous system, is the building substance of cells. In the body synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It occurs in animal products (meat, kidneys, liver) and plants (wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, grains, green vegetables). Prevents fatigue and excessive stress, accelerates the healing of cuts and wounds, acts as a stimulant for the side effects of the use of antibiotics. Deficiency causes skin changes, and difficulty in blood clotting.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
What is pyridoxine hydrochloride?
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a basic, the most commonly used form of vitamin B6 in supplements and fortified foods. It is a vitamin soluble in water. It converts to the active form of the vitamin - pyridoxal phosphate.
Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. It takes part in the production of many neurotransmitters, such as GABA, serotonin and catecholamines and it takes part in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. It is an important factor for the process of the creation of red cells and hemoglobin and its deficit may be one of the factors causing anemia. This vitamin contributes to maintaining proper energy metabolism and is important for maintaining well-being and good psychological condition. Its presence supports the breakdown of pro-inflammatory homocysteine to cysteine and further metabolites, thanks to which it may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiological incidents.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride may be found in many vitamin B complexes and vitamin-mineral preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Vitamin B1 (thiamin, vitamin B) improves mental alertness and strengthens the nervous system ensuring the proper functioning of the brain. It improves cardiac and muscular system. It is suportive in the treatment of shingles. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Natural source of vitamin B1 are brown bread, yeast, eggs, raw vegetables, meat, milk, legumes, cheese.
Vitamin B1 deficiency hinders the processes of decomposition of sugars (catabolism), causes a loss of appetite and disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract, can cause polyneuritis and disease beriberi.
Dosage: Recommended daily intake is 1-2 mg.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid, folacin, vitamin M) is part of a complex of B vitamins soluble in water. It takes part in the production of red blood cells, in cooperation with vitamin B12, preventing anaemia progression, its molecules are involved in catalysis of hematopoietic processes. Together with vitamins B6 and B12 it helps in the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. It eliminates disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract. It affects the proper functioning of the immune system. Necessary during pregnancy, because its deficiency causes neural tube defects in the fetus. The natural ingredient of yeast, eggs, liver, green vegetables and it is synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal bacteria.
Dosage: The daily requirement is 0.1-0.2 mg.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin soluble in liquids. Participates in the production of red blood cells and is essential in the absorption of iron by the body. It calming effect, a positive effect on concentration and memory. Intensifies its action in cooperation with folic acid (vitamin M). Usually occurs in animal products, fish and dairy products. It contains trace elements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, general and immunity weakness, inhibiting of growth and damage to the myelin sheath of nerves.
Whey proteins (proteins from micro-filtration of cow's milk) are approx. 20% of milk protein. They are characterized by a biologically active ingredients, particularly exogenous amino acids (BCAA and lysine and EAA), also beta-lactoglobulin (36%), alpha-lactalbumin (20%), immunoglobulin (10%). They store retinol and iron in cells, stimulate the level of the bacterial flora. The use of whey protein supplements is recommended in almost all sports, mainly representatives of power sports and bodybuilders as a dietary supplement of high quality protein, especially pre- and post-workout. Available in the form of pure concentrates, hydrolysates and isolates as well as a component of nutrients (protein bars, carbohydrate-protein meal type MRP).
Dosage: according to individual needs, typically 30-90 grams per day.
Glutamine peptides are a form of hydrolyzed wheat gluten containing up to 95% of proteins, including gliadin (40-50%) and glutelin (35-45%) for increasing the digestibility. They are the source of non essential amino acids (glutamic acid and glutamine), with the catabolic potential, and with neuromodulating properties and other complementary amino acids - cystine and phenylalanine (approx. 5%), lysine and methionine (below 1%). Available in mono-preparation supplements and as a component of anti-catabolic supplements and protein and carbohydrate- protein supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl. They does not meet big interest, because of the low solubility and unpleasant taste.
Ca-HMB is in liquid form and is a combination of calcium and beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate in a single molecule, resulting in a neutralized acidic. Benefits of calcium are discussed under the entry: calcium. HMB is a derivative of leucine synthesized within the body. Its source may be also plant foods (grapefruit, alfalfa (lucerne)) and some fish species. The substance has a low anti-catabolic and anabolic potential, helpful for people starting an increased physical activity, it may also contribute to the reduction of body fat. It is a component of anti-catabolic supplements, creatine stacks and amino acid as well as mono-preparation supplements.
Dosage: should not exceed 6 grams per day.
HMB - beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl acid, a fat derivative of leucine (endogenous amino acid) synthesized from leucine in the human body. In its natural form (unfortunately in small quantities) is available in grapefruit, alfalfa and meat of some fish. Information about special anabolic and anti-catabolic action appears to be greatly exaggerated. However, it is recommended to use HMB by untrained persons who take an physical activity, in order to ensure adaptation to exercise and protect muscle tissue during exercise exceeding the general standard. In the sports supplementation is used rarely (due to not fully confirmed action in reducing the body fat, anabolic and anti-catabolic properties).
Dosage: 3-5 g per day
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