It is reasonable to start from half a portion, especially in case of people sensitive to stimulants’ effects. Using in the evening hours may result in sleeplessness, therefore do not apply later than 6 hours before sleep. To maintain sensitivity to the product’s effects for longer, apply one week breaks in use or take only on ad hoc basis.
The energy value is determined by the chemical composition of the food product, by means of the so-called. physiological equivalents energy., determining the value of metabolic energy contained in 1 g of the component. Most commonly used is the equivalent of Atwater: protein 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates 4kcal/g, and for fat 9kcal/g.
Carbohydrates are an essential nutrient. They are divided into: simple sugars (monosaccharides), disaccharides and polysaccharides. In terms of the human bioavailability of carbohydrates is divided into: digestabe, those which are digested in the gastrointestinal tract by transferring energy to the tissues or cells (such as starch, fructose) and indigestable, resistant to digestive enzymes (e.g. cellulose) . Affects blood glucose levels (glycemic index) and the metabolism of insulin (insulin index). The greatest demand for carbohydrates occurs before physical activity or in the middle of it, because they increase the exercise capacity, consumed after exercise provide regeneration. In the sports diet the absorption rate it is important of carbohydrates and reactions of the organism. Available in mono-preparation supplements and part of the energetic supplements, creatine stacks, nitrogen boosters.
Dosage: according to the statistics of the Institute of Food and Nutrition, carbohydrates should comprise about 50% of daily energy intake. In some diets, used residual carbohydrate consumption, not exceeding 30g / 24h.
Sugars - is the term used to refer to the crystal structure of the carbohydrate (sugar), characterized by a sweet taste. This group includes: sucrose (obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets and natural foods), fruit sugars (fructose) and glucose. Carbohydrate intake should not exceed 10% of the energy consumed during the day meals. Excess intake of sugars leading to diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis and obesity. Particular caution should be performed carbohydrate intake by athletes of sculpting disciplines and people on a diet. A greater need for carbohydrates, due being easily accessible sources of energy, may be in the periods before and after workouts and before and after the fight. Preparations available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9, is a synthetic form of naturally occurring folates. It needs to be transformed to folates in order to be biologically active also in the human organism. Therefore, its supplementation is recommended to people who do not have problems with methylation processes.
The majority of people associate folic acid with the period of pregnancy. It is definitely a justified association. Proper supply of vitamin B9 conditions correct development of the fetus and prevents disorders of neural tube defects in a baby.
Supplementation with folic acid also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system of adults. Some sources say that it is conducive to maintaining beneficial emotional states. Moreover, folic acid takes part in the process of erythropoiesis, thanks to which it enables efficient production of red cells.
Supplementation with folic acid should be also considered by men who deal with low sperm quality. It was proven that complementing the level of vitamin B9 is conducive to increasing reproductive abilities of men.
Choline belongs to the soluble in liquids group of B vitamins. It is an organic nitrogen base containing lecithin, and acetylcholine. Together with inositol is involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol metabolism, preventing its accumulation on the walls of arteries and deposits in the gallbladder. With the penetration of the brain, contained lecithin improves its action and improves memory. Used in the treatment of age-related diseases (Alzheimer's). It occurs in plant foods: yeast, wheat germ, lecithin, green leafy vegetables and egg yolks.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, 1-methylotheobromine) is a purine alkaloid occurring in the natural state in plants (Coffea arabica, Camelia sinensis, Paulinia cupana, Ilex paraguariensis), which acts as a natural pesticide, acting toxic to insects. Peculiar smell and taste also deters herbivores. Caffeine in the body inhibits the adenosine receptors in the brain, fighting fatigue and allowing for action activation. It has a beneficial effect on the metabolism of oxygen, which increases the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and rapid post-workout recovery. In the sports supplementation, caffeine is used as a stimulant nervous system. It has the thermogenic potential and in combination with other substances (e.g. Polyphenols, both occurring in coffee beans, such as cocoa beans, tea leaves and mate) can effectively participate in the reduction of body fat. It is included in many dietary stimulants (creatine stacks, no-boosters, beverages). It is a component of fat burners. It is also in the form of mono-preparation supplements.
Dosage: 100-600 mg per day. Due to the long release of activity should not be used in the evening, before sleep.
Glucose (dextrose) - saccharide (dextrose) belonging to carbohydrates, which is a basic component of complex sugars. Glucose is used in the body as an energy source, in particular for the brain and red blood cells. It is used directly or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. It participates in the synthesis of alanine, converted accumulates in the fatty tissue. For this reason it is not recommended in programs of weight reduction and improved body composition. In chemically pure form is used as a sweetener. Due to tts energy capacity, it used in beverages used in sports as well as in nutritional amino acid and carbohydrate-protein supplements, in the form of dextrose is the basis of so-called. "creatine transporters."
Dosage: according to individual needs, usually pre- and post-workout, before and after exercises.
Alanine is an endogenous amino acid (i.e. having the ability to synthesize the human body other amino acids and pyruvate), building up protein. It has a key role in the transport of nitrogen between the muscles and the liver (i.e. Cahill cycle). It allows to transform glucose in non-sugar compounds. During prolonged exercise it enhances metabolism. It occurs in products of animal origin (meat, dairy, eggs) and vegetable origins (legumes, peas). It is used in the form of amino acid supplements in pre- and post-workout preparations. It complements the BCAA. Increased use of supplements with alanine is required in athletic training when high strength and endurance is required (e.g. weights lifting athletes marathon runners etc.).
Garcinia Cambogia extract - plant extract containing hydroxycitric acid (HCA), citrate lyase (enzyme) inhibitor reducing the availability of aceto-CoA in fatty acid synthesis and increasing the glycogen synthesis in the liver. Used both in sports supplementation, as well as for people with average physical activity in body mass reduction programs, especially the reduction of deposoting fats. It does not show stimulating activity, maintains the level of blood pressure, does not cause insomnia and sleeping difficulties. Replaces thermogenics for people who are sensitive to caffeine. Available in the form of mono-preparations and as a component of slimming supplements and the composition of the body and body fat reduction supplements.
Dosage: Depending on the standardization of raw materials
HCA (hydroxycitric acid), an organic acid that occurs in the peel and fruit plants: Tamarindus and garcinia, citrate lyase inhibitor, it can reduce appetite and food intake and slow down the synthesis of fatty acids and increase glycogen synthesis in the liver. Used in sports supplementation as a factor in weight control while reducing body fat, and also prophylactically with eating high-calorie meals. It can be used in a diet for people with low physical activity. It is available as mono-preparation and multicomponent slimming supplements, acting neutrally for people sensitized to caffeine.
Dosage: 300-1200 mg per day in divided doses.
What is magnesium carbonate?
Magnesium carbonate is an inorganic magnesium salt of carbonic acid. It demonstrates the properties neutralizing gastric acid.
Magnesium is one of the most deficient elements of a classic diet, therefore supplements with magnesium are incredibly popular. Deficiencies of this mineral mainly may result in hypertension, lower sensitivity to insulin and psychological symptoms, such as increased stress, irritability, fatigue and weariness.
This element also takes part in regulating water balance in the organism and nerve transmission. It influences muscle work, which may be observed in characteristic cramps related to magnesium deficiency. It is also known for its anti-stress and sedative properties, thanks to which it is willingly used before sleep and in the situations characterized with high psychological burden. It is also important for mineral density of bones, as right next to calcium, it is one of the most important elements for maintaining strong and healthy bones.
Chromium Picolinate is a complex containing trivalent chromium and picolinic acid, for greater assimilation, it has chelating and anti-inflammatory properties. Trivalent chromium is a part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), supporting the anabolic effect of insulin in the creatine transport into the muscle cells. Chromium is used to treat type 1 diabetes melitus, and with insulin it is involved in the metabolism of glucose it transport of protein. It is an activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is used by people active beyond sports and in sports supplementation as fat burners affecting fat reduction, weight loss, as well as a compound which enhances uptake of nutrients by muscle cells and the vitamin and mineralizing supplements, available www.muscle-zone. pl
Creatine Matrix, is a composition of several forms of creatine, its qualitative and quantitative composition depends on the formula used by the manufacturers. The main tasks of creatine is to maintain a high rate of ATP (the basic intracellular energy carrier), hydration of muscle cells and participating in the storage of glycogen. Stores of creatine in muscles influence the improvement of exercise capacity, biological regeneration, and consequently an increase in muscle mass. In the supplementation widely used is its energy and anabolic potential. Components of Creatine matrices are the most common: creatine monohydrate (characterized by high bioavailability and speed of saturation of tissues), creatine malate (has better solubility in liquids of creatine monohydrate, provides an increase in exercise capacity, accelerates gaining of lean body mass, provides biological recovery of the body), ester creatine ( with a strong anabolic potential catabolic high bioavailability), orotate, magnesium creatine chelate, and other forms. In the sports supplementation Creatine matrices are included in the pre- and post -workout creatine stacks, the precursor of nitric oxide (matrix containing arginine), transporters (taurine and others), BCAA, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Dosage: Depending on the chemical composition of the matrix,
Creatine monohydrate is a popular and cheapest form of creatine used in sports supplementation in Poland. This is a molecule, in which are bound: creatine molecule with a molecule of water. It has a high bioavailability and tissue velocity saturation. Supports the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates muscle growth and regeneration after training exercise. Transport of creatine into the muscle cells is supported by the insulin hormone. For better effect of saturation of the tissues, a diet increasing the content of insulin in the body is indicated (carbohydrate and high protein diet) and supporting nutrients and supplements (Dietary carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein, insulin ALA, d-pinitol or taurine). Creatine monohydrate is present in the form of mono-preparation supplements (capsules, powders, tablets) and multicomponent supplements (i.e. as a component of creatine stacks).
Dosage: depending on the form of supplement, the type of exercise and weight, normally are used one of the following models of creatine supplementation:
- cyclic supplementation : 5-10g per day in 1-3 portions during the day, 3-5g per dose. The length of the cycle for 4-8 weeks.
- cyclic supplementation with saturated phase: the first 5-7 days after 20-30g daily in 4-6 doses of 4-6g per serving, then the maintenance phase 2-10g per day in divided doses. The length of the cycle 4-8 weeks
- constant supplementation: 0,03-0,05g per kg of body weight for an extended period of time.
Creatine pyruvate (creatine pyruvate) is formed from the binding of molecules of the two components in one molecule. Pyruvate (pyruvic acid belonging to the oxo acids) is formed as an intermediate product of metabolism of saccharides, proteins and fats, it is an important participant in the energy conversion, of which the intracellular level affects the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates the reduction of body fat. Phosphocreatine (a form of creatine) is involved in maintaining the balance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with the ability to replenish in the organism, which is the main carrier of energy within cells. It improves the hydration of muscle cells and the content of glycogen accumulated in them.
The use of creatine pyruvate is recommended to athletes and other sportsmen in all fields of sport and people with high physical activity as part of the diet and support the effort (provides rapid strength gain, accelerates regeneration of the body), causing increases in lean body mass and improve its aesthetics and reduce body fat. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and a component of creatine stacks, available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl..
Dosage: 2 - 3 mg in the morning and in the evening.
Creatine citrate is formed from the combination of creatine molecules and three molecules of citric acid in one molecule. It is a substance soluble in body fluids, more soluble than creatine monohydrate. Ionized citric acid (citrate) is involved in energy conversion, by acting in conjunction with creatine, increases this potential and gives the compound an additional properties. Creatine citrate, when used systematically, effects the energy storage, supporting the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and increase of muscle mass. It has a regenerative ability through a pH, return to ATP balance in combination with anabolic activity of kinases activated by creatine. Due to the responsibility of the hormone insulin for the transport of creatine into the muscle cells, it is desirable to use creatine during meals or by the use of supplements (carbohydrate, carbohydrate-protein, insulin-like) and citrate creatine mono-preparation and multi-compaund supplements and as supplement to creatine stacks.
Dosage: Depending on the form of supplement, the type of exercise and weight, usually used one of the following creatine supplementation models:
1) supplementation cycle: 5-10g per day in 1-3 portions during the day, 2-5g per dose. Cycle length of about 4-12 weeks
2) constant supplementation: 0,03-0,05g per kg body weight for an extended period of time.
Creatine phosphate - thanks to high-energy phosphate bonding maintains a balance (by reconstruction), ATP (as the result of the transfer of a phosphate group ADP), which is the primary carrier of energy production in muscle cells. Phosphocreatine will maintain energy reserves, allowing its additional release in time of an effort to accelerate the pace of renewal processes (cell regeneration) and muscle mass. Creatine phosphate does not too many supporters, as when served the food it shows too low digestibility. It is recommended for use in sports supplementation as part of the exercise support (strength and endurance), for example. just before training, or greater exercise.
Kre-Alkalyn (buffered creatine monohydrate) is a patented formula of creatine, operating with better effect in smaller doses than other forms of creatine (creatine monohydrate). Use of kre-alkyn does not store water in the intercellular spaces, and muscle cells, its use provides full transportation (without support) into muscle cells. With its application, there are no digestive disorders.
Kre-alkalyn regularly used enhances the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and accelerates the growth of lean body mass. Used after exercise affects the rapid renewal of cells and reduces the feeling of fatigue. It is often used by athletes, despite the higher price then other complexes of creatine. It is available as mono-preparation supplements (capsules, and powders) as well as the complementing of creatine stacks.
Dosage: as recommended by the manufacturer 2.5 - 5g / 24h.
Buffered creatine monohydrate is a special formula combines creatine monohydrate with the so-called "Buffer", which is a chemical compound that allows to obtain the proper pH of the solution, the aim of its development was to eliminate the conversion of creatine to form creatinine. The formula is modelled on the patented Kre-ALKALYN formula. Buffered creatine monohydrate improves the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates the growth of lean body mass, and provides extensive wellness after exercise. It is available as both a mono-preparation supplement in a form of capsules (rarely as powder), as a basis or supplementation of creatine stacks.
Dosage: in professional sport recommended 2.5-7.5 grams per day, depending on the intensity of the workout.
Leucine is an essential amino acid, one of the three branched chain amino acids, ketogenic, its isomer is isoleucine. It affects the secretion of anabolic hormones (insulin, combined carbohydrates), acts on enzymes (mTOR) starting the process of muscle protein synthesis and controlling its course. Protein synthesis by leucine is affecting the development of bones, muscles and skin. It reduces the fat tissue. Without the availability of leucine, protein synthesis is impossible. It naturally occurs in animal products (such as eggs, meat, dairy and fish), plant origin, and as a post-training supplements, BCAA, EAA, no-boosters, creatine stacks, carbohydrate supplements. Ir is also in the form of mono-preparation supplements. It is one of the most important amino acids for the athlete's body, basically in every sports discipline.
Dosage: The demand is 5-10 g / 24h, dosage pre- and post-workout and in the morning after waking up.
Taurine – non-protein amino acid containing sulphur, which is synthesized in the body from methionine and cysteine, present in sufficient amount in human or animal body (in the brain, heart and skeletal), although in some cases must be supplemented. Significantly affects the calcium content in the cells and stabilizes the water and electrolyte balance and maintains acid-base balance. Takes part in the synthesis of bile acids. In the body acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It is an insulin-mimetic improving insulin metabolism, responsible for transport of nutrients (such as amino acids, glucose, creatine) to the cells and muscle tissue. These properties determine that it is a valued mono-preparation supplement and valuable addition to creatine and amino acid supplements, recommended for psycho-pchysically active people and athletes and other competitive sportsmen in pre- and post-workout periods.
Dosage: 3 grams per day.
Lysine belongs to the group of 9 essential amino acids delivered into the body from outside (with food or as a supplement) .It is a building substance of protein (the muscle protein). It is available in food of animal origin (meat, dairy products) and vegetable (legumes). It plays an important role in many physiological processes (absorption of calcium, production of enzymes, hormones and antibodies), and arginine is a component of supplements that increase the synthesis of growth hormone (HGH stimulators). In the form of hydroxylysine (a component of collagen) recommended for the treatment of sports injuries, and prevention. In the case of stress and excessive physical and psychological overloads, it is recommended due to the function of lowering cortisol levels. Also it applies in medicine, in the treatment of anxiety and herpes. The share of lysine intake of daily doses of amino acids should not exceed 5.1%. Available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl.
In the processes of digestion of protein matter, as a result of decarboxylation of lysine, may be converted into cadaverine (biogenic amine) having a strong toxicity.
Dosage: the lack of a well-defined standard daily intake of lysine. The supplementation dosages regularly used: with arginine 500 mg - 2g (before bedtime) pre- and post-workout optionally with other amino acids.
Valine – is a branched essential amino acid, indispensible for the functioning of the nervous system (receiving of sensory information), involved in muscle protein synthesis and energy generation. Administration of additional doses of valine before exercise (or immediately after) has anti-catabolic effect, protecting the proteins and allowing them to rebuild. It is slightly stimulatory (delays symptoms of fatigue during workout), affecting the level and relations of neurotransmitters. It helps to protect the liver. It stimulates an increase in strength and muscle mass, participates in the reduction of body fat. BCAA, EAA, and other mixtures of amino acid supplementation, protein and protein supplements and carbohydrate-stacks, brings positive results in strength and endurance sports.
Valine deficiency can occur in case of increased energy needs of the body, as the result of stress and too much stress load.
Ornithine belongs to endogenous non-protein amino acids, it is produced by transformation of the amino acid arginine and glutamic acid. It is an intermediate in a metabolic cycle urea synthesis from ammonia and carbon dioxide. The degradation of amino acids in the liver making the first removes nitrogen (alpha amino groups are transferred to alpha-ketoglutarate) and leads to the formation of glutamate, transformed into the form of ammonium ions. It is necessary to neutralize the highly toxic ammonia, which is carried out by aspartate, creating argininosuccinate. A further phase of change is the formation of arginine and fumarate. Then the cycle is repeated. In the transition process, ornithine is the starting material for the enzyme that catalyses a particular stage of the urea synthesis. It is also an acceptor for the synthesis of citrulline. Ornithine, through the synthesis of polyamines, has a regenerating effect on the liver.
Ornithine is available as mono-preparation (often included with the other ingredients of supporting liver function) and multi-component supplements containing ornithine aspartate. Indispensable in sports supplementation in no-boosters (pre-workout products) as it stores the arginine, it slows down its expenditure and allows for more effective use in the synthesis of nitric oxide. Available in the full range at: www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: There are no specific standards for daily consumption. 200 - 1500 mg / 24h, commonly used in supplementation.
Histidine is one of the 22 amino acids being part of protein - depending on the source of information it is referred to as "relatively exogenous" or "exogenous". The required dosage of this amino acid is very small, and at the same time it should be added that the intestinal microflora can also play a role in meeting the demand for it.
Histidine is a precursor of carnosine, and therefore dipeptide having antioxidant and buffering qualities. Increasing the dose of carnosine in muscles is an effective way to increase strength and endurance, as well as to accelerate recovery after exercise, thus improving the indicators that are extremely important especially in the case of people being engaged in regular physical activity , including professional athletes.
The number of products containing histidine and available on the market is quite limited. This amino acid is mainly added to some of the supplements used before and/or after exercise, as well as to some of the amino acid supplements. It should be noted, however, that it also occurs naturally in foods rich in protein, and thus primarily in meat, eggs and dairy products, as well as in protein supplements.
Histidine is an amino acid which can be converted in the body into glucose. It also takes part in the synthesis of proteins, including hemoglobin.
Dosage: There are no precise data, but as it has already been hinted above - the required dosage of this amino acid is very small.
Exogenous methionine is an amino acid containing sulphur in its composition. It provides multi metabolism, with the indispensable help of vitamin B6. Participates in the synthesis of phospholipids (e.g. Lecithin), carnitine responsible for transport in the body of long-chain fatty acids, burned in the mitochondria cells (organelles in cells with a separate kernel), along with cystine forms cysteine. It is in the body antioxidant function. Natural source of acquisition of methionine are high-protein foods of animal origin (eggs, meat, fish), vegetable (sesame seeds, grain products). Available in all protein and carbohydrate protein and amino acid supplements such EAA and contain so-called all-day amino acids, supporting the liver preparations and cosmetics supporting the growth and condition of hair, skin and nails.
Threonine - essential amino acid, or synthesized from food or (and) in the form of supplements. It takes part in the production of new muscle proteins. It is essential for the proper formation of the immune system is maintained in good condition the skin, bones. It affects the normal development of the enamel of teeth and the digestive system by acting positively on the liver and gastric mucosa. It is essential to the proper functioning of the nervous system. On the Polish there are no threonine mono-preparations. Available in the form of blends of amino acids (e.g.the type of EAA) and natural protein supplements.
Deficiency of threonine can cause neurological disorders and increased depression.
Dosage: the lack of standards of daily demand threonine. Doses customarily used in the supplementation.
Tryptophan is one of the nine essential amino acids that require high protein food consumption, mono-preparation supplements tryptophan, an amino acid type and EAA-day nutrients and protein, which is essential in the process of protein synthesis. A derivative of 5-HTP in the decarboxylation is a precursor of serotonin ((tissue hormone having an effect on blood pressure and peristalsis), and the subsequent processes of melatonin (the hormone sleep). It is used for synthesis of nicotinic acid (niacin, known as vitamin PP). The due to the appetite suppressant is also used in certain weight loss formulations.
Even a small deficiency is dangerous for the course of many physiological processes, can cause the nervous system deterioration of mood, insomnia, and disturbances in the digestive process. Tryptophan deficiency in the long term leads to depression and neurological disorders.
Mono-preparation supplements of tryptophan are recommended as a means of reducing the stress and reducing the feeling of insomnia. A part of the nutritional supplements type of EAA and all-day aminoacids, it is a valuable component of protein supplements. Available in store www.muscle-zone.pl
Doses recommended in supplementation: 500 - 2000 mg at bedtime, alternatively 500 - 1000 mg before meals.
Proline - endogenous amino acid, one of the 22 amino acids building proteins. As a result of the conversion (carried out with the participation of vitamin C) in the form of hydroxy-proline, it is the ingredient of collagen ( basic protein of connective tissue). Influences positively the locomotor system especially in people exposed to an overload (e.g. strength and endurance sports athletes) and during rehabilitation after injury or surgery of locomotor system organs. It is naturally occurring in food, or is synthesized in the body from glutamate. In the dietary supplementation it is a component of high-protein nutrients, amino acid products (in the form of proline or hydroxy-proline), and supporting the functioning of the locomotor system that contains collagen available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Dosage: No standards for use. Dosage as customarily in supplementation
Arginine is an exogenous amino acid, it is a component of dietary proteins, not always synthesized in the human body in necessary quantity, so it is necessary to deliver it in the form of synthetics. It takes part in the biosynthesis agmatine, creatine and nitrogen oxides. The use of supplements containing arginine before workout increases the exercise capacity (strength, endurance). Used after considerable effort intensifies the transfer of energy and building compounds and intensifies the process of recovery. Used at bedtime in combination with lysine and ornithine enhances the synthesis of growth hormone. takes part in the intrasystemic synthesis of creatine. Arginine (as a precursor of ornithine) is involved in the urea cycle, increases the flow of blood in the circulatory system, increases sexual potency (in a short time after application). It affects the body's immunity preventing infections, and lowers blood pressure. In supplements – usually as alpha-ketoglutarate.
Tyrosine - endogenous amino acid (synthesized within the body), one of the 22 protein amino acids building. It occurs naturally in animal food products (eggs, dairy, meat). If the deficiency, it can be synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine, capable of being converted to tyrosine in the liver. It is a precursor of neurotransmitters: dopamine (the group of catecholamines, participating in the processes occurring in the nervous system, causing muscle coordination and participates in the synthesis of many hormones) and noradrenaline (counteracting stress, stimulating the heart and circulatory system, and increasing glycogenolysis and lipolysis participating in the processes of energy transformations). Tyrosine is a precursor of thyroid hormones responsible for the rate of change in metabolic processes and pigment (melanin). In the supplementation, preparations containing tyrosine are used in programs reducing body fat (weight loss), improve mood and are stimulants.
Dosage: Customarily 500-2000 mg per day.
Citrus aurantium extract (Bitter orange extract) is widely used in weight reduction process, among athletes, active individuals and people with so called sedentary life-style. It is a source of synephrine and octopamine, which in combination with caffeine and polyphenols contained in green tea affect lipolysis, releasing fatty acids from adipocytes, causing increased energy expenditure, burning them in the sources of cells vital energy (mitochondria). It became popular after the banning ephedine (dangerous for the body) by WADA .
The extract of bitter orange is part of the weight loss supplements (I.e. thermogenics), pre-workout creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters.
Dosage: No specific standards of daily consumption. At high hypertension and with medicines containing a statin, extract of bitter orange should not be used.
Synephrine is an organic compound from harvested on an industrial scale the fruit of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Citrus auratuim extract (extract of bitter orange) is widely used in the process of weight reduction, both among athletes, active individuals, as well as leading the so-called. "sedentary lifestyle". It is a source of synephrine and octopamine, which in combination with caffeine and polyphenols contained in green tea affect lipolysis, releasing fatty acids adipocytes, by causing increased energy expenditure, burning them in the sources of vital energy cells (mitochondria). It is popular on the banning of ephedra by WADA (dangerous for the body). Contraindication to use preparations against people with hypertension. In the sports supplementation is available in body mass reduction and sculpting programs, as a thermogenic, creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters ingredient.
Dosage: No standards unit consumption. In the supplementation - customarily - 10-30 mg
Bacopa monnieri (bacopa cordata) - a plant of the family Scropfulariacea rich in a number of active ingredients, such as bacosides (A and B), monnierasides, hersaponin, alkaloids (herpestine, brahmin), mannitol, phytosterols and flavonoids. It has stimulant properties that affect memory and concentration. It is an antioxidant and has a beneficial effect on the biological renewal of an organism. Accelerates protein synthesis and has adaptogenic effect. Willingly used by students during preparation for end-of-term examinations, in sports supplementation is recommended in the period of intensified training, during sporting competitions (rarely before an short-term exercise). Part of the creatine stacks, no-boosters and herbal preparations for increase of concentration and mood.
Glutamine (L-glutamine) - endogenous amino acid building proteins, glutamic acid amide. In the human body it is responsible for the synthesis of proteins, acid-base balance and removing ammonia from the organism. With the shortage of energy taken from the muscle tissue, glutamine with alanine participate in the process of gluconeogenesis, and participate in the production of glucose substrate. Glutamine has a direct impact on the proper functioning of the digestive system and immune immunity of the organism. Participates in the synthesis of one of the most powerful antioxidant glutathione. It has anti-catabolic potential. It can be found naturally in foods of animal and vegetable origin, protein supplements. Used as mono- or multi-component amino acid supplements, and supplements improving biological recovery after exercise, often in combination with BCAA.
Dosage: 5-20 g per day (portioned during the day, and after training and waking up). The supplementation uses the minimum dose of 2-15g to 1 serving.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
L-glutamine - amino acid building endogenous proteins, glutamic acid amide. In the human body it is responsible for the synthesis of proteins, acid-base balance and removing ammonia outside of the organism. With the shortage of energy taken from the muscle tissue, glutamine with alanine participate in the process of gluconeogenesis, and participate in the production of glucose substrate. L-glutamine has a direct impact on the proper functioning of the digestive system and immunity of the organism. Participates in the synthesis of one of the most powerful antioxidant - glutathione. It has anti-catabolic potential. It is found naturally in foods of animal and vegetable origin and high protein supplements. Used as mono-preparation or multi-component amino-acid supplements and supplements enhancing biological recovery after exercises, often in combination with BCAA.
Dosage: 5-20 g per day (portioned during the day, and after training and waking up). The minimum dose used in supplementation is 2-15g per 1 serving.
Glutamic acid is one of the 22 amino acids that build proteins, produced in the human body of most of the amino acids (such as glutamine, alpha-ketoglutarate, etc.). It has a function of the stimulating neurotransmitter, allowing for the better memory. It is the precursor of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid). The use of glutamic acid in sport supplementation has a limited range, due to the possible negative side effects in the nervous system. Replaced by the glutamic acid (glutamine) which is limiting or even eliminatng, side effects. It is present in foods of animal origin and in some plant proteins, is used as an additive for protein supplements and amino acid preparations and to improve flavouring of the dishes. Preparations available at www.muscle-zone.pl
L-carnitine is a vitamin-like substance, synthesized in the body from amino acids (lysine and methionine) and available in foods of animal origin. It is a component of muscle (including cardiac muscle) and nerve tissue. Involved in the metabolism of fats affecting the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cell, facilitating their burning and energy production. It is a potent antioxidant, contributing to the improvement of the aerobic condition and accelerating the recovery after intense exercise. Recommended for use for representatives of endurance sports. In the sports supplementation there are available mono-preparation of carnitine (in liquid form, acetylated [ALC], esterified [see. Propionyl-L-carnitine]) and multicomponent (e.g. in a complex with organic acids - see. L-carnitine tartrate) energetic, weight loss and improving the exercise capacity supplements, to be purchased at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g per day in 1 - 3 doses, preferably about 45 - 60 minutes prior to exercise.
Choline bitartrate a combination of one molecule of tartaric acid and choline, and in this embodiment is a precursor of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter). The human body is able to intracellular synthesis of choline, using the amino acid and vitamin B12. Because of the possibility of shortages of the above mentioned substances, it is necessary to supplement them with supplementation. Choline is a component of lecithin, which is the building substance of cells conditioning the proper functioning of the nervous system, and sphingomyelin, acting as an insulator of nerve tissue. Bitartrate affects the course of fat metabolism. In the sports supplementation of choline, bitartrate is used in the stimulating supplements,, affecting concentration and programs of weight control (fat reduction).
Dosage: 1-3 grams per day.
Grape seed extract is a valuable source of active ingredients: flavonoids, fatty acids, proanthocyanidins and vitamin E, an antioxidant, binding free radicals, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregating. It is a component of a pro-health supplements enhancing preventive treatment of the circulatory system diseases. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements or as a component of nutritional supplements (creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters), vitamin, herbal detoxificating.
Dosage: 50-100 mg per day.
Bioperine - a black pepper extract, which is a source of plant alkaloid – piperine, enhancing secretion of digestive juices, affecting the increase of the availability of food (and other chemicals) and regulating the digestive tract. Through the access to food and chemicals, it indirectly influences the development of muscle tissue and increases the exercise capacity (psychophysical). There has been a positive effect on the immune system and the intensification of the lipolysis processes observed. Available in the form of mono-preparations and as a component of supplements and nutrients.
Dosage: 5-10 mg per day.
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a physiological antioxidant, a fat soluble. It takes an active part in the process of creating the energy of ATP. intracorporeal synthesis requires the presence of B vitamins and trace elements, its intensification is caused by heavy training stress or under the influence of stress. Beneficial effects of Coenzyme Q10 has been found on the cardiovascular system, lipid profile (lowering LDL) cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease. Reducing the level of coenzyme Q10 starts when the age of 35, hence must be supplemented by preparations available in cosmetics (external action on the skin), and supplements intensifying the production of energy (for athletes strength) as well as mono-preparation supplement available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Dosage: 10 - 90 mg / 24h
Ribose is a simple sugar produced within the organism, included in the nucleic acid [RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic)], containing information on genetic factors affecting growth and development and normal functioning of cells. The appropriate amount of ribose adopted in the supplementation guarantees the resoring and proper energy conversion, both ATP and ADP and increasing aerobic capacity, improves the functioning of the heart and muscles. It is recommended especially the use of preparations containing ribose for people at high physical exertion and those whose body does not produce sufficient amounts of ribose. Supplements available at www.muscle-zone.pl