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It is reasonable to start from half a portion, especially in case of people sensitive to stimulants’ effects. Using in the evening hours may result in sleeplessness, therefore do not apply later than 6 hours before sleep. To maintain sensitivity to the product’s effects for longer, apply one week breaks in use or take only on ad hoc basis.
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Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
Choline belongs to the soluble in liquids group of B vitamins. It is an organic nitrogen base containing lecithin, and acetylcholine. Together with inositol is involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol metabolism, preventing its accumulation on the walls of arteries and deposits in the gallbladder. With the penetration of the brain, contained lecithin improves its action and improves memory. Used in the treatment of age-related diseases (Alzheimer's). It occurs in plant foods: yeast, wheat germ, lecithin, green leafy vegetables and egg yolks.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, 1-methylotheobromine) is a purine alkaloid occurring in the natural state in plants (Coffea arabica, Camelia sinensis, Paulinia cupana, Ilex paraguariensis), which acts as a natural pesticide, acting toxic to insects. Peculiar smell and taste also deters herbivores. Caffeine in the body inhibits the adenosine receptors in the brain, fighting fatigue and allowing for action activation. It has a beneficial effect on the metabolism of oxygen, which increases the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and rapid post-workout recovery. In the sports supplementation, caffeine is used as a stimulant nervous system. It has the thermogenic potential and in combination with other substances (e.g. Polyphenols, both occurring in coffee beans, such as cocoa beans, tea leaves and mate) can effectively participate in the reduction of body fat. It is included in many dietary stimulants (creatine stacks, no-boosters, beverages). It is a component of fat burners. It is also in the form of mono-preparation supplements.
Dosage: 100-600 mg per day. Due to the long release of activity should not be used in the evening, before sleep.
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9, is a synthetic form of naturally occurring folates. It needs to be transformed to folates in order to be biologically active also in the human organism. Therefore, its supplementation is recommended to people who do not have problems with methylation processes.
The majority of people associate folic acid with the period of pregnancy. It is definitely a justified association. Proper supply of vitamin B9 conditions correct development of the fetus and prevents disorders of neural tube defects in a baby.
Supplementation with folic acid also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system of adults. Some sources say that it is conducive to maintaining beneficial emotional states. Moreover, folic acid takes part in the process of erythropoiesis, thanks to which it enables efficient production of red cells.
Supplementation with folic acid should be also considered by men who deal with low sperm quality. It was proven that complementing the level of vitamin B9 is conducive to increasing reproductive abilities of men.
Maltodextrin - complex carbohydrates derived from starch by enzymatic depolymerization, having a long and high bioavailability (bioavailability comparable to glucose). They are divided into low-sugered, medium-sugered and high-sugered, wherein each of the has a high glycemic index (GI) - more than 80 to approx. 110. These are an easily digestible source of energy, supporting the insulin metabolism, supplementing muscle glycogen and that improving creatine and amino acid transport into cells muscle, influencing the increase in exercise capacity. In the sports supplementation preparations containing maltodextrin are used pre- and post-workout and as a complement to the energy value of food.
Dosage: the lack of standards unit consumption. The supplements conventionally used 20-70g / 1 doze, about three times a day of training. Not recommended to take preparation before going to sleep, and for use by people with a tendency to weight gaining.
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Beta-alanine (β-alanine) is a β-amino acid (the same group to which the I-alanine belongs, but with different chemistries). In combination with histidine, it forms β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) - a antioxidant, chelating and buffering compound. Carnosine reduces the level of hydrogen ions in the cell and allows to extend the physical performance and endurance, it affects biological recovery after exercise. Beta-alanine is available in the form of single component and advanced amino-acid supplements, creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters.
What is L-Citrulline?
L-Citrulline is an α-amino acid, ornithine derivative. It was isolated for the first time from watermelon and this is how it gained its name, as citrullus in Latin means watermelon. Citrulline takes part in oxygen processes of energy production during effort, thanks to which it is especially attractive for sportsmen of endurance disciplines. It also takes part in urea cycle, also known as the Ornithine cycle, thanks to which it helps to get rid of excessive amounts of ammonia from the organism.
It converts to l-arginine in kidneys and scientific studies suggest that is increases its level even more effectively than in case of sole arginine. Moreover, the increase of arginine level resulting from citrulline supply is longer and more stable. Thanks to this, it contributes to the increase of nitric oxide and widening of blood vessel lumen. This property makes citrulline useful in preventing cardiological incidents. The positive influence on the circulatory system is also used in case of erection disorders, as increased nitric oxide may initiate more effective blood flow to sex organs.
L-Citrulline is contained in the composition of many pre-workout supplements and NO-boosters directed at the improvement of sports abilities of the organism, which may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
What is magnesium carbonate?
Magnesium carbonate is an inorganic magnesium salt of carbonic acid. It demonstrates the properties neutralizing gastric acid.
Magnesium is one of the most deficient elements of a classic diet, therefore supplements with magnesium are incredibly popular. Deficiencies of this mineral mainly may result in hypertension, lower sensitivity to insulin and psychological symptoms, such as increased stress, irritability, fatigue and weariness.
This element also takes part in regulating water balance in the organism and nerve transmission. It influences muscle work, which may be observed in characteristic cramps related to magnesium deficiency. It is also known for its anti-stress and sedative properties, thanks to which it is willingly used before sleep and in the situations characterized with high psychological burden. It is also important for mineral density of bones, as right next to calcium, it is one of the most important elements for maintaining strong and healthy bones.
HCA (hydroxycitric acid), an organic acid that occurs in the peel and fruit plants: Tamarindus and garcinia, citrate lyase inhibitor, it can reduce appetite and food intake and slow down the synthesis of fatty acids and increase glycogen synthesis in the liver. Used in sports supplementation as a factor in weight control while reducing body fat, and also prophylactically with eating high-calorie meals. It can be used in a diet for people with low physical activity. It is available as mono-preparation and multicomponent slimming supplements, acting neutrally for people sensitized to caffeine.
Dosage: 300-1200 mg per day in divided doses.
Chromium Picolinate is a complex containing trivalent chromium and picolinic acid, for greater assimilation, it has chelating and anti-inflammatory properties. Trivalent chromium is a part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), supporting the anabolic effect of insulin in the creatine transport into the muscle cells. Chromium is used to treat type 1 diabetes melitus, and with insulin it is involved in the metabolism of glucose it transport of protein. It is an activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is used by people active beyond sports and in sports supplementation as fat burners affecting fat reduction, weight loss, as well as a compound which enhances uptake of nutrients by muscle cells and the vitamin and mineralizing supplements, available www.muscle-zone. pl
Glutamine (L-glutamine) - endogenous amino acid building proteins, glutamic acid amide. In the human body it is responsible for the synthesis of proteins, acid-base balance and removing ammonia from the organism. With the shortage of energy taken from the muscle tissue, glutamine with alanine participate in the process of gluconeogenesis, and participate in the production of glucose substrate. Glutamine has a direct impact on the proper functioning of the digestive system and immune immunity of the organism. Participates in the synthesis of one of the most powerful antioxidant glutathione. It has anti-catabolic potential. It can be found naturally in foods of animal and vegetable origin, protein supplements. Used as mono- or multi-component amino acid supplements, and supplements improving biological recovery after exercise, often in combination with BCAA.
Dosage: 5-20 g per day (portioned during the day, and after training and waking up). The supplementation uses the minimum dose of 2-15g to 1 serving.
L-glutamine - amino acid building endogenous proteins, glutamic acid amide. In the human body it is responsible for the synthesis of proteins, acid-base balance and removing ammonia outside of the organism. With the shortage of energy taken from the muscle tissue, glutamine with alanine participate in the process of gluconeogenesis, and participate in the production of glucose substrate. L-glutamine has a direct impact on the proper functioning of the digestive system and immunity of the organism. Participates in the synthesis of one of the most powerful antioxidant - glutathione. It has anti-catabolic potential. It is found naturally in foods of animal and vegetable origin and high protein supplements. Used as mono-preparation or multi-component amino-acid supplements and supplements enhancing biological recovery after exercises, often in combination with BCAA.
Dosage: 5-20 g per day (portioned during the day, and after training and waking up). The minimum dose used in supplementation is 2-15g per 1 serving.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Alpha-ketoglutarate (ionized Alpha-ketoglutarate acid, ketone derivative of glutaric acid). Involved in the metabolism of amino acids, oxidation, and transport of the nitrogen in the body. It accelerates the synthesis of components of food (anti-catabolism). In sports supplementation it is used in combination with arginine, glutamine and BCAA. As it is of excreting a toxic ammonia from the body - it is antitoxin. It is a part of sports pre- and post-training supplements, and anti-catabolic supplements and amino acid complexes.
Alanine is an endogenous amino acid (i.e. having the ability to synthesize the human body other amino acids and pyruvate), building up protein. It has a key role in the transport of nitrogen between the muscles and the liver (i.e. Cahill cycle). It allows to transform glucose in non-sugar compounds. During prolonged exercise it enhances metabolism. It occurs in products of animal origin (meat, dairy, eggs) and vegetable origins (legumes, peas). It is used in the form of amino acid supplements in pre- and post-workout preparations. It complements the BCAA. Increased use of supplements with alanine is required in athletic training when high strength and endurance is required (e.g. weights lifting athletes marathon runners etc.).
Creatine (β-methylguanidoacetic acid) is an endogenous substance, synthesized from the acids present in liver and kidney (L-arginine, L-glycine and L-methionine) and consumption of meat. Its action ensures an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, which is an energy carrier, increases the hydration of cells and muscle glycogen stores. In the sports supplementation creatine is stored in the muscles, which improves energy management, exercise capacity and quick recovery and muscle growth. It has the ergogenic, anabolic and anti-catabolic potential.
Creatine is one of the high-performance substances used in competitive sports, with a reputation confirmed by scientific research. In the form of mono-preparation supplements such as creatine ester, creatine malate, creatine monohydrate, and the multi-component supplements (both various forms of creatine, as well as other substances, precursors of nitric oxide, the BCAA type amino acids). Supplements containing creatine available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: depending on the form of preparation, the type of exercise and weight, normally one of the following models of creatine dosage is used:
- cyclic supplementation: 5 - 10g per day in 1 - 3 portions a day, 2 - 5 g per dose. Cycle time approx. 4 - 12 weeks
- cyclic supplementation with saturated phase: first 5 - 7 days 20 - 30g per day on Day 4 - 6 doses 4 - 6g per serving, then the maintenance phase 2 - 10g per day in divided doses. Cycle time approx. 4 - 8 weeks
- constant supplementation: 0.03 - 0.05 g per kg body weight for an extended period of time.
Creatine monohydrate is a popular and cheapest form of creatine used in sports supplementation in Poland. This is a molecule, in which are bound: creatine molecule with a molecule of water. It has a high bioavailability and tissue velocity saturation. Supports the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates muscle growth and regeneration after training exercise. Transport of creatine into the muscle cells is supported by the insulin hormone. For better effect of saturation of the tissues, a diet increasing the content of insulin in the body is indicated (carbohydrate and high protein diet) and supporting nutrients and supplements (Dietary carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein, insulin ALA, d-pinitol or taurine). Creatine monohydrate is present in the form of mono-preparation supplements (capsules, powders, tablets) and multicomponent supplements (i.e. as a component of creatine stacks).
Dosage: depending on the form of supplement, the type of exercise and weight, normally are used one of the following models of creatine supplementation:
- cyclic supplementation : 5-10g per day in 1-3 portions during the day, 3-5g per dose. The length of the cycle for 4-8 weeks.
- cyclic supplementation with saturated phase: the first 5-7 days after 20-30g daily in 4-6 doses of 4-6g per serving, then the maintenance phase 2-10g per day in divided doses. The length of the cycle 4-8 weeks
- constant supplementation: 0,03-0,05g per kg of body weight for an extended period of time.
Creatine pyruvate (creatine pyruvate) is formed from the binding of molecules of the two components in one molecule. Pyruvate (pyruvic acid belonging to the oxo acids) is formed as an intermediate product of metabolism of saccharides, proteins and fats, it is an important participant in the energy conversion, of which the intracellular level affects the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates the reduction of body fat. Phosphocreatine (a form of creatine) is involved in maintaining the balance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with the ability to replenish in the organism, which is the main carrier of energy within cells. It improves the hydration of muscle cells and the content of glycogen accumulated in them.
The use of creatine pyruvate is recommended to athletes and other sportsmen in all fields of sport and people with high physical activity as part of the diet and support the effort (provides rapid strength gain, accelerates regeneration of the body), causing increases in lean body mass and improve its aesthetics and reduce body fat. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and a component of creatine stacks, available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl..
Dosage: 2 - 3 mg in the morning and in the evening.
Creatine citrate is formed from the combination of creatine molecules and three molecules of citric acid in one molecule. It is a substance soluble in body fluids, more soluble than creatine monohydrate. Ionized citric acid (citrate) is involved in energy conversion, by acting in conjunction with creatine, increases this potential and gives the compound an additional properties. Creatine citrate, when used systematically, effects the energy storage, supporting the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and increase of muscle mass. It has a regenerative ability through a pH, return to ATP balance in combination with anabolic activity of kinases activated by creatine. Due to the responsibility of the hormone insulin for the transport of creatine into the muscle cells, it is desirable to use creatine during meals or by the use of supplements (carbohydrate, carbohydrate-protein, insulin-like) and citrate creatine mono-preparation and multi-compaund supplements and as supplement to creatine stacks.
Dosage: Depending on the form of supplement, the type of exercise and weight, usually used one of the following creatine supplementation models:
1) supplementation cycle: 5-10g per day in 1-3 portions during the day, 2-5g per dose. Cycle length of about 4-12 weeks
2) constant supplementation: 0,03-0,05g per kg body weight for an extended period of time.
Kre-Alkalyn (buffered creatine monohydrate) is a patented formula of creatine, operating with better effect in smaller doses than other forms of creatine (creatine monohydrate). Use of kre-alkyn does not store water in the intercellular spaces, and muscle cells, its use provides full transportation (without support) into muscle cells. With its application, there are no digestive disorders.
Kre-alkalyn regularly used enhances the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and accelerates the growth of lean body mass. Used after exercise affects the rapid renewal of cells and reduces the feeling of fatigue. It is often used by athletes, despite the higher price then other complexes of creatine. It is available as mono-preparation supplements (capsules, and powders) as well as the complementing of creatine stacks.
Dosage: as recommended by the manufacturer 2.5 - 5g / 24h.
Buffered creatine monohydrate is a special formula combines creatine monohydrate with the so-called "Buffer", which is a chemical compound that allows to obtain the proper pH of the solution, the aim of its development was to eliminate the conversion of creatine to form creatinine. The formula is modelled on the patented Kre-ALKALYN formula. Buffered creatine monohydrate improves the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates the growth of lean body mass, and provides extensive wellness after exercise. It is available as both a mono-preparation supplement in a form of capsules (rarely as powder), as a basis or supplementation of creatine stacks.
Dosage: in professional sport recommended 2.5-7.5 grams per day, depending on the intensity of the workout.
L-carnitine is a vitamin-like substance, synthesized in the body from amino acids (lysine and methionine) and available in foods of animal origin. It is a component of muscle (including cardiac muscle) and nerve tissue. Involved in the metabolism of fats affecting the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cell, facilitating their burning and energy production. It is a potent antioxidant, contributing to the improvement of the aerobic condition and accelerating the recovery after intense exercise. Recommended for use for representatives of endurance sports. In the sports supplementation there are available mono-preparation of carnitine (in liquid form, acetylated [ALC], esterified [see. Propionyl-L-carnitine]) and multicomponent (e.g. in a complex with organic acids - see. L-carnitine tartrate) energetic, weight loss and improving the exercise capacity supplements, to be purchased at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g per day in 1 - 3 doses, preferably about 45 - 60 minutes prior to exercise.
Choline bitartrate a combination of one molecule of tartaric acid and choline, and in this embodiment is a precursor of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter). The human body is able to intracellular synthesis of choline, using the amino acid and vitamin B12. Because of the possibility of shortages of the above mentioned substances, it is necessary to supplement them with supplementation. Choline is a component of lecithin, which is the building substance of cells conditioning the proper functioning of the nervous system, and sphingomyelin, acting as an insulator of nerve tissue. Bitartrate affects the course of fat metabolism. In the sports supplementation of choline, bitartrate is used in the stimulating supplements,, affecting concentration and programs of weight control (fat reduction).
Dosage: 1-3 grams per day.
Leucine is an essential amino acid, one of the three branched chain amino acids, ketogenic, its isomer is isoleucine. It affects the secretion of anabolic hormones (insulin, combined carbohydrates), acts on enzymes (mTOR) starting the process of muscle protein synthesis and controlling its course. Protein synthesis by leucine is affecting the development of bones, muscles and skin. It reduces the fat tissue. Without the availability of leucine, protein synthesis is impossible. It naturally occurs in animal products (such as eggs, meat, dairy and fish), plant origin, and as a post-training supplements, BCAA, EAA, no-boosters, creatine stacks, carbohydrate supplements. Ir is also in the form of mono-preparation supplements. It is one of the most important amino acids for the athlete's body, basically in every sports discipline.
Dosage: The demand is 5-10 g / 24h, dosage pre- and post-workout and in the morning after waking up.
Taurine – non-protein amino acid containing sulphur, which is synthesized in the body from methionine and cysteine, present in sufficient amount in human or animal body (in the brain, heart and skeletal), although in some cases must be supplemented. Significantly affects the calcium content in the cells and stabilizes the water and electrolyte balance and maintains acid-base balance. Takes part in the synthesis of bile acids. In the body acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It is an insulin-mimetic improving insulin metabolism, responsible for transport of nutrients (such as amino acids, glucose, creatine) to the cells and muscle tissue. These properties determine that it is a valued mono-preparation supplement and valuable addition to creatine and amino acid supplements, recommended for psycho-pchysically active people and athletes and other competitive sportsmen in pre- and post-workout periods.
Dosage: 3 grams per day.
Lysine belongs to the group of 9 essential amino acids delivered into the body from outside (with food or as a supplement) .It is a building substance of protein (the muscle protein). It is available in food of animal origin (meat, dairy products) and vegetable (legumes). It plays an important role in many physiological processes (absorption of calcium, production of enzymes, hormones and antibodies), and arginine is a component of supplements that increase the synthesis of growth hormone (HGH stimulators). In the form of hydroxylysine (a component of collagen) recommended for the treatment of sports injuries, and prevention. In the case of stress and excessive physical and psychological overloads, it is recommended due to the function of lowering cortisol levels. Also it applies in medicine, in the treatment of anxiety and herpes. The share of lysine intake of daily doses of amino acids should not exceed 5.1%. Available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl.
In the processes of digestion of protein matter, as a result of decarboxylation of lysine, may be converted into cadaverine (biogenic amine) having a strong toxicity.
Dosage: the lack of a well-defined standard daily intake of lysine. The supplementation dosages regularly used: with arginine 500 mg - 2g (before bedtime) pre- and post-workout optionally with other amino acids.
Isoleucine is an essential branched amino acid (BCAA), leucine-isomer. It has anti-catabolic action ( protects muscle against decay), glucogenic (an alternative energy source when the level of glucose after exercise decreases, helps for the regulation of blood glucose levels, reduces the deficiency of fatty acids), anti-catabolic (muscle protects against decay), reduces stress. It participates in the synthesis of proteins (including the synthesis of hemoglobin). It is an essential part of the regeneration of damaged tissues of the body, and after intense training. It occurs in products containing animal protein (meat and dairy products, eggs, dairy products) and plant (almonds, walnuts) and dietary supplements.
Isoleucine is applied with other branched chain amino acids: leucine, valine, and in the supplement complex type of BCAA, in the proportions: leucine: isoleucine: valine = 2: 1: 1. The supplements used in competitive sports requiring increased strength, the bigger share of isoleucine is used.
Dosage: No standard daily use. Frequently applied directly after the workout during the decrease of the glucose level of or at fatty acid deficiency.
Valine – is a branched essential amino acid, indispensible for the functioning of the nervous system (receiving of sensory information), involved in muscle protein synthesis and energy generation. Administration of additional doses of valine before exercise (or immediately after) has anti-catabolic effect, protecting the proteins and allowing them to rebuild. It is slightly stimulatory (delays symptoms of fatigue during workout), affecting the level and relations of neurotransmitters. It helps to protect the liver. It stimulates an increase in strength and muscle mass, participates in the reduction of body fat. BCAA, EAA, and other mixtures of amino acid supplementation, protein and protein supplements and carbohydrate-stacks, brings positive results in strength and endurance sports.
Valine deficiency can occur in case of increased energy needs of the body, as the result of stress and too much stress load.
Ornithine belongs to endogenous non-protein amino acids, it is produced by transformation of the amino acid arginine and glutamic acid. It is an intermediate in a metabolic cycle urea synthesis from ammonia and carbon dioxide. The degradation of amino acids in the liver making the first removes nitrogen (alpha amino groups are transferred to alpha-ketoglutarate) and leads to the formation of glutamate, transformed into the form of ammonium ions. It is necessary to neutralize the highly toxic ammonia, which is carried out by aspartate, creating argininosuccinate. A further phase of change is the formation of arginine and fumarate. Then the cycle is repeated. In the transition process, ornithine is the starting material for the enzyme that catalyses a particular stage of the urea synthesis. It is also an acceptor for the synthesis of citrulline. Ornithine, through the synthesis of polyamines, has a regenerating effect on the liver.
Ornithine is available as mono-preparation (often included with the other ingredients of supporting liver function) and multi-component supplements containing ornithine aspartate. Indispensable in sports supplementation in no-boosters (pre-workout products) as it stores the arginine, it slows down its expenditure and allows for more effective use in the synthesis of nitric oxide. Available in the full range at: www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: There are no specific standards for daily consumption. 200 - 1500 mg / 24h, commonly used in supplementation.
Histidine is one of the 22 amino acids being part of protein - depending on the source of information it is referred to as "relatively exogenous" or "exogenous". The required dosage of this amino acid is very small, and at the same time it should be added that the intestinal microflora can also play a role in meeting the demand for it.
Histidine is a precursor of carnosine, and therefore dipeptide having antioxidant and buffering qualities. Increasing the dose of carnosine in muscles is an effective way to increase strength and endurance, as well as to accelerate recovery after exercise, thus improving the indicators that are extremely important especially in the case of people being engaged in regular physical activity , including professional athletes.
The number of products containing histidine and available on the market is quite limited. This amino acid is mainly added to some of the supplements used before and/or after exercise, as well as to some of the amino acid supplements. It should be noted, however, that it also occurs naturally in foods rich in protein, and thus primarily in meat, eggs and dairy products, as well as in protein supplements.
Histidine is an amino acid which can be converted in the body into glucose. It also takes part in the synthesis of proteins, including hemoglobin.
Dosage: There are no precise data, but as it has already been hinted above - the required dosage of this amino acid is very small.
Exogenous methionine is an amino acid containing sulphur in its composition. It provides multi metabolism, with the indispensable help of vitamin B6. Participates in the synthesis of phospholipids (e.g. Lecithin), carnitine responsible for transport in the body of long-chain fatty acids, burned in the mitochondria cells (organelles in cells with a separate kernel), along with cystine forms cysteine. It is in the body antioxidant function. Natural source of acquisition of methionine are high-protein foods of animal origin (eggs, meat, fish), vegetable (sesame seeds, grain products). Available in all protein and carbohydrate protein and amino acid supplements such EAA and contain so-called all-day amino acids, supporting the liver preparations and cosmetics supporting the growth and condition of hair, skin and nails.
Phenylalanine (essential amino acid) is provided from the outside with food or synthetic products. Its source are the high-protein foods and supplements, concentrates: protein, amino acid and nutritional supplements for athletes. Precursor of tyrosine, thyroid hormones and neurotransmitters (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine), phenylethylamines (neuromodulator) and melanin pigments of hair and skin. Essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It has analgesic, antidepressant, and is used as an additive to supplements with thermogenic and stimulating action. It is a component of aspartame.
Excess phenylalanine consumed by people with neurological problems, may reduce the availability of other essential amino acid tryptophan of nervous system and consequently lead to a reduction in serotonin and exacerbate the depression.
Threonine - essential amino acid, or synthesized from food or (and) in the form of supplements. It takes part in the production of new muscle proteins. It is essential for the proper formation of the immune system is maintained in good condition the skin, bones. It affects the normal development of the enamel of teeth and the digestive system by acting positively on the liver and gastric mucosa. It is essential to the proper functioning of the nervous system. On the Polish there are no threonine mono-preparations. Available in the form of blends of amino acids (e.g.the type of EAA) and natural protein supplements.
Deficiency of threonine can cause neurological disorders and increased depression.
Dosage: the lack of standards of daily demand threonine. Doses customarily used in the supplementation.
Tryptophan is one of the nine essential amino acids that require high protein food consumption, mono-preparation supplements tryptophan, an amino acid type and EAA-day nutrients and protein, which is essential in the process of protein synthesis. A derivative of 5-HTP in the decarboxylation is a precursor of serotonin ((tissue hormone having an effect on blood pressure and peristalsis), and the subsequent processes of melatonin (the hormone sleep). It is used for synthesis of nicotinic acid (niacin, known as vitamin PP). The due to the appetite suppressant is also used in certain weight loss formulations.
Even a small deficiency is dangerous for the course of many physiological processes, can cause the nervous system deterioration of mood, insomnia, and disturbances in the digestive process. Tryptophan deficiency in the long term leads to depression and neurological disorders.
Mono-preparation supplements of tryptophan are recommended as a means of reducing the stress and reducing the feeling of insomnia. A part of the nutritional supplements type of EAA and all-day aminoacids, it is a valuable component of protein supplements. Available in store www.muscle-zone.pl
Doses recommended in supplementation: 500 - 2000 mg at bedtime, alternatively 500 - 1000 mg before meals.
Proline - endogenous amino acid, one of the 22 amino acids building proteins. As a result of the conversion (carried out with the participation of vitamin C) in the form of hydroxy-proline, it is the ingredient of collagen ( basic protein of connective tissue). Influences positively the locomotor system especially in people exposed to an overload (e.g. strength and endurance sports athletes) and during rehabilitation after injury or surgery of locomotor system organs. It is naturally occurring in food, or is synthesized in the body from glutamate. In the dietary supplementation it is a component of high-protein nutrients, amino acid products (in the form of proline or hydroxy-proline), and supporting the functioning of the locomotor system that contains collagen available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Dosage: No standards for use. Dosage as customarily in supplementation
Grape seed extract is a valuable source of active ingredients: flavonoids, fatty acids, proanthocyanidins and vitamin E, an antioxidant, binding free radicals, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregating. It is a component of a pro-health supplements enhancing preventive treatment of the circulatory system diseases. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements or as a component of nutritional supplements (creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters), vitamin, herbal detoxificating.
Dosage: 50-100 mg per day.
Nicotinic acid amide – also known as nicotinamide, belongs to a group of compounds referred to as vitamin B3, along with nicotinic acid and inositol hexanicotinate. It exerts its main biological activity as a precursor to two key coenzymes for efficient energy metabolism of the body: nicotinamide adenine dinucletodide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. They are responsible for carrying hydrogen and electrons in the respiratory chain and thus facilitate efficient energy production by the human body.
Nicotinamide supplementation is recommended for active persons not only because of its ability to promote the body’s energy efficiency. It has also a beneficial impact on mind, increases tolerance to stressors and may reduce symptoms of depression. It is pointed out that niacin supplementation correlates positively with sleep quality.
Unlike nicotinic acid, nicotinamide does not show the ability to produce a “flush effect”, namely redness in the face caused by taking large doses of niacin. It has been also shown to influence partly cardiovascular function.
Nicotinamide is also indicated to influence beneficially the absorption of other B vitamins and vitamin D. This compound should be taken with caution by diabetics because it can increase the body’s demand for insulin.
ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a vitamin-like substance, a metabolite of catecholamines with strong antioxidant properties, it enhances anti-free-radicals action of some vitamins (A and E). ALA is synthesized at low levels by the body. It is a component of such products as broccoli, yeast, chicken liver, spinach. In the medicine it is used in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy (tissues shows a sensitivity to the insulin hormone, and it stimulates blood sugar levels). It has a positive effect on the functioning of the circulatory system and heart by the anti-arteriosclerosis action. It improves transport of creatine. It affects the storage of glycogen in muscle and liver.
Antioxidant properties of ALA are used in sports supplementation, along with the assimilation of nutrients. ALA is found in the form of mono-formula and is a compound of multicomponent products as: amino acids, creatine nitrogen boosters, as well as insulin-like (insulin-mimetic substances).
Bioperine - a black pepper extract, which is a source of plant alkaloid – piperine, enhancing secretion of digestive juices, affecting the increase of the availability of food (and other chemicals) and regulating the digestive tract. Through the access to food and chemicals, it indirectly influences the development of muscle tissue and increases the exercise capacity (psychophysical). There has been a positive effect on the immune system and the intensification of the lipolysis processes observed. Available in the form of mono-preparations and as a component of supplements and nutrients.
Dosage: 5-10 mg per day.
Arginine is an exogenous amino acid, it is a component of dietary proteins, not always synthesized in the human body in necessary quantity, so it is necessary to deliver it in the form of synthetics. It takes part in the biosynthesis agmatine, creatine and nitrogen oxides. The use of supplements containing arginine before workout increases the exercise capacity (strength, endurance). Used after considerable effort intensifies the transfer of energy and building compounds and intensifies the process of recovery. Used at bedtime in combination with lysine and ornithine enhances the synthesis of growth hormone. takes part in the intrasystemic synthesis of creatine. Arginine (as a precursor of ornithine) is involved in the urea cycle, increases the flow of blood in the circulatory system, increases sexual potency (in a short time after application). It affects the body's immunity preventing infections, and lowers blood pressure. In supplements – usually as alpha-ketoglutarate.
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a physiological antioxidant, a fat soluble. It takes an active part in the process of creating the energy of ATP. intracorporeal synthesis requires the presence of B vitamins and trace elements, its intensification is caused by heavy training stress or under the influence of stress. Beneficial effects of Coenzyme Q10 has been found on the cardiovascular system, lipid profile (lowering LDL) cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease. Reducing the level of coenzyme Q10 starts when the age of 35, hence must be supplemented by preparations available in cosmetics (external action on the skin), and supplements intensifying the production of energy (for athletes strength) as well as mono-preparation supplement available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Dosage: 10 - 90 mg / 24h
Ribose is a simple sugar produced within the organism, included in the nucleic acid [RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic)], containing information on genetic factors affecting growth and development and normal functioning of cells. The appropriate amount of ribose adopted in the supplementation guarantees the resoring and proper energy conversion, both ATP and ADP and increasing aerobic capacity, improves the functioning of the heart and muscles. It is recommended especially the use of preparations containing ribose for people at high physical exertion and those whose body does not produce sufficient amounts of ribose. Supplements available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Tyrosine - endogenous amino acid (synthesized within the body), one of the 22 protein amino acids building. It occurs naturally in animal food products (eggs, dairy, meat). If the deficiency, it can be synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine, capable of being converted to tyrosine in the liver. It is a precursor of neurotransmitters: dopamine (the group of catecholamines, participating in the processes occurring in the nervous system, causing muscle coordination and participates in the synthesis of many hormones) and noradrenaline (counteracting stress, stimulating the heart and circulatory system, and increasing glycogenolysis and lipolysis participating in the processes of energy transformations). Tyrosine is a precursor of thyroid hormones responsible for the rate of change in metabolic processes and pigment (melanin). In the supplementation, preparations containing tyrosine are used in programs reducing body fat (weight loss), improve mood and are stimulants.
Dosage: Customarily 500-2000 mg per day.
Synephrine is an organic compound from harvested on an industrial scale the fruit of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Citrus auratuim extract (extract of bitter orange) is widely used in the process of weight reduction, both among athletes, active individuals, as well as leading the so-called. "sedentary lifestyle". It is a source of synephrine and octopamine, which in combination with caffeine and polyphenols contained in green tea affect lipolysis, releasing fatty acids adipocytes, by causing increased energy expenditure, burning them in the sources of vital energy cells (mitochondria). It is popular on the banning of ephedra by WADA (dangerous for the body). Contraindication to use preparations against people with hypertension. In the sports supplementation is available in body mass reduction and sculpting programs, as a thermogenic, creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters ingredient.
Dosage: No standards unit consumption. In the supplementation - customarily - 10-30 mg
Green tea extract is a concentrate that contains biologically active compounds: polyphenols (e.g. catechin, in the form of EGCG - epigallocatechin gallate), having antioxidant properties and a small thermogenic potential, modifies the action of testosterone metabolites, DTH. Green tea extract is an ingredient of many sports supplements containing fat burners, having pro-health and vitaminizing effect; also for those with low physical activity as an antioxidant and slimming supplement. Available either as mono-preparations, ready drinks, and above all as an extract.
Dosage: 200-500 mg per day (depending of the content of other active bio-components).
Bacopa monnieri (bacopa cordata) - a plant of the family Scropfulariacea rich in a number of active ingredients, such as bacosides (A and B), monnierasides, hersaponin, alkaloids (herpestine, brahmin), mannitol, phytosterols and flavonoids. It has stimulant properties that affect memory and concentration. It is an antioxidant and has a beneficial effect on the biological renewal of an organism. Accelerates protein synthesis and has adaptogenic effect. Willingly used by students during preparation for end-of-term examinations, in sports supplementation is recommended in the period of intensified training, during sporting competitions (rarely before an short-term exercise). Part of the creatine stacks, no-boosters and herbal preparations for increase of concentration and mood.
HMB - beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl acid, a fat derivative of leucine (endogenous amino acid) synthesized from leucine in the human body. In its natural form (unfortunately in small quantities) is available in grapefruit, alfalfa and meat of some fish. Information about special anabolic and anti-catabolic action appears to be greatly exaggerated. However, it is recommended to use HMB by untrained persons who take an physical activity, in order to ensure adaptation to exercise and protect muscle tissue during exercise exceeding the general standard. In the sports supplementation is used rarely (due to not fully confirmed action in reducing the body fat, anabolic and anti-catabolic properties).
Dosage: 3-5 g per day
Ginger root extract is an extract of ginger - plants occurring in tropical Asia and Australia, the Zingiberaceae famly, (in Zingiberaceae are also turmeric and cardamom which are just as ginger a valuable kitchen spice). Characterized by a high content of gingerols (phenylpropane derivatives), acting inflammatory, diaphoretic, warming, antioxidant reducing oxidation of LDL cholesterol and the deposition of atherosclerotic plaque on the walls of blood vessels. It is used in the reducing body fat supplements. In combination with glucosamine and curcumin it affects the regeneration of joints, treatment of musculoskeletal system injury and regeneration. In the sports supplementation pro-health and thermogenic potential of ginger root is used.
Dosage: 50-200 mg per day.
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