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Calories are the conventional name of the unit expressing the energy value of food, the demand and energy expenditure in human body, which in fact is 1 kilocalorie (1 kcal). 1 kilocalorie is the amount of thermal energy required to heat 1 g of water and 1 degree Celsius. The SI unit of thermal energy is 1 joule (1J), equal to approximately 4,185 kcal.
The energy value is determined by the chemical composition of the food product, by means of the so-called. physiological equivalents. Most often Atwater equivalent is used: ratio for protein 4 kcal / g, for carbohydrates 4kcal / g, and for fat - 9kcal / g.
The energy value carried out with the so-called. "Caloric bomb" is equivalent to the physical energy, amounting to 4.1 kcal per 1 g carbohydrate to 5.65 kcal per 1 g protein, 9.45 kcal per 1 g of fat.
Nutritional value, determines the suitability of a food product for realizing life functions of human, the higher it is - the higher bioavailability and lower quantity for consumption for obtaining the effects.
Total fats - total fat introduced into the body in food and dietary supplements containing both saturated fatty acids and unsaturated, including the essential fatty acids. Generally fats, thanks to energy production, allows for greater energy expenditure during exercise, causing post-workout regeneration. It is partially stored in the body. It is assumed that the energy of fat is 9 kcal per 1g. In addition to the production of fatty acids, they are the building blocks of cell membranes and the white matter of the brain. EFAs are precursors of tissue hormones and biologically active compounds. It is especially important to maintain a proper balance between acids of Omega 3 and Omega 6.
Saturated fatty acids are a group of fatty acid having different carbon chain lengths, in which except for the carboxyl group, each of the carbon atoms is linked by a single bond. Saturated fatty acids are commonly known as bad fat, which might adversely affect the cholesterol level, in particular by the action of acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, and therefore their consumption should be reduced. Research carried out in this matter do not confirm entirely the prevailing beliefs.
Trans fats (trans fat) are the result of hydrogenation the liquid fraction of vegetable fat, by introducing the hydrogen bond of unsaturated fatty acid, forming trans isomers, causing the change of nutrient properties of fatty acids, by remaining only the energy source. They are used in hard margarine and food products (baked confectionery products). It is recommended to completely eliminate (or at least limit) the consumption of trans fats, because of their adverse effect on the human body (e.g. raise the level of total cholesterol, disturbed the balance between the factions of LDL and HDL, weaken the immunity of the organism and have a negative impact on the insulin metabolism, making it difficult to transport food into muscle cells, also there is noticed their influence on the development of cancer. Very rarely used in thermogenic sports supplements (i.e. energy bars).
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Carbohydrates are an essential nutrient. They are divided into: simple sugars (monosaccharides), disaccharides and polysaccharides. In terms of the human bioavailability of carbohydrates is divided into: digestabe, those which are digested in the gastrointestinal tract by transferring energy to the tissues or cells (such as starch, fructose) and indigestable, resistant to digestive enzymes (e.g. cellulose) . Affects blood glucose levels (glycemic index) and the metabolism of insulin (insulin index). The greatest demand for carbohydrates occurs before physical activity or in the middle of it, because they increase the exercise capacity, consumed after exercise provide regeneration. In the sports diet the absorption rate it is important of carbohydrates and reactions of the organism. Available in mono-preparation supplements and part of the energetic supplements, creatine stacks, nitrogen boosters.
Dosage: according to the statistics of the Institute of Food and Nutrition, carbohydrates should comprise about 50% of daily energy intake. In some diets, used residual carbohydrate consumption, not exceeding 30g / 24h.
Dietary fibre is a mixture of undigested substances and not absorbed by the human body. Due to the properties divided into: insoluble fibre (e.g. cellulose [polysaccharide] found in fruits and vegetables), partially soluble fibre (including hemicellulose occurring with cereal grains and soluble fibre (including pectin, gums, mucilages [polysaccharides]). Dietary fibre affects the digestive system and gastrointestinal system regulating its operation. By filling the stomach (satiety) reduces appetite, lowers triglycerides and cholesterol and consequently can support the weight loss process and maintain a slim body. It also affects blood glucose levels and cleansing the body of toxins. Available in powder formulations (capsules, and powders), mainly containing the soluble fraction (pectin, gums and mucilages) diet and meal replacements.
Dosage: 10-20 grams per day, before or during meals with some water.
Sugars - is the term used to refer to the crystal structure of the carbohydrate (sugar), characterized by a sweet taste. This group includes: sucrose (obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets and natural foods), fruit sugars (fructose) and glucose. Carbohydrate intake should not exceed 10% of the energy consumed during the day meals. Excess intake of sugars leading to diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis and obesity. Particular caution should be performed carbohydrate intake by athletes of sculpting disciplines and people on a diet. A greater need for carbohydrates, due being easily accessible sources of energy, may be in the periods before and after workouts and before and after the fight. Preparations available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Proteins (proteins, polypeptides) is a polymer, of which the basic units (monomers) are amino acids. Protein is composed of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, and is an elementary nutrient necessary for the proper functioning of the body, an ingredient and a component of tissues, part of the hormones and enzymes and other bioactive substances. Protein determines the proper metabolism and energy processes, as well as all other life processes. The sources of natural proteins are foods of animal origin (including meat, fish, eggs, dairy products) and plant origin (legumes, soy). Deficiency of protein leads to protein malnutrition and a significant weakening of the body. It can lead to anaemia, reduced immunity, muscle relaxation, disorders of the digestive system. Also, overdose protein is undesirable because it can lead to acidification of the body, and interfere with the digestive system and an increase in the concentration of homocysteine in the blood. It is a component of many supplements and nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body, both showing a low physical activity, or training the strength and endurance competitions.
Dosage: strength athletes: approx. 1.7 - 2.5 g / 1 kg of body weight; endurance athletes and strength -endurance athletes approx. 1.3 - 2 g / 1 kg of body weight, people with low activity approx. 0.8 - 1.1 g / 1 kg of body weight / 24h. In estimating the amount of protein, you should take into account the intake of other nutrients (carbohydrates and fats)
Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
The iron part of the dye in the form of the heme (hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat), a non-haem (in plant), and enzymes responsible for transport and storage of oxygen in the body. It occurs in enzymes responsible for: the metabolism of fatty acids, prostaglandin biosynthesis, catabolism of tryptophan. The absorption of iron in plant is lower than in animal products. In plant foods, it is reduced by contained chemicals: phytates and oxalates, also calcium and high acidity (pH factor). Only 8% of the intake of iron is absorbed by the body and transported to the blood. For tts absorption is needed sufficient amount of: cobalt, manganese, copper and vitamin C. Iron itself is essential for the metabolism of B vitamins. Source of acquisition of iron are animal products (meat, organ meats, egg yolks) and plant products (whole grain bread, beans , cocoa, parsley, nuts, soy). Iron is also present in synthetic form as a component of vitamin-mineral and mineral and mono-preparation supplements, often enriched with vitamin C. Supplements containing iron compounds are recommended for athletes during intense training and those on a meatless diet (vegetarians and vegans).
Iron deficiency causes anaemia. Using a large amount of strong coffee or tea hinders the absorption of iron. Symptoms of iron deficiency are: insomnia, diarrhea, impaired body temperature, loss of papillae on the tongue, reduced exercise capacity, and reduced intellectual and psychological efficiency.
Excess iron reduces the absorption of other elements (e.g. zinc, copper), reduced immunity, causing tissue damage of some organs (kidney, liver, heart), increased risk of cancer.
Dosage: 3-12 mg per day.
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.