Betaine HCl - betaine hydrochloride, a highly bioavailable form of trimethylglycine. As the name suggests, TMG constitutes a derivative of the protein amino acid glycine, enriched in three methyl groups. It naturally appears in the roots of red beet. It demonstrates a wide influence on the human organism and is willingly used in supplementation.
Betaine constitutes one of the elements of methylation process as a donor for methyl groups in the reduction reaction of homocysteine to methionine, positively influences the level of S-adenosylmethionine in the system and is conducive to the activation of folates. In this way, it holistically influences proper energy metabolism in the organism and has positive influence on maintaining proper mental functions (by the promotion of SAMe concentration in the organism). Research suggests that it may be directly used in order to decrease the level of homocysteine in people who note its excessive concentrations.
Moreover, trimethylglycine has osmotic properties and increases hydration of cells. This has positive influence on their metabolism and may promote efficiency of their work. In relation to myocytes, this activity is similar to the activity of creatine and is indicated as a probable mechanism of promoting the efficiency of skeletal muscles, as a result of supplementation with betaine. This scope of activity of TMG, however, is still under research - scientists are looking for further mechanisms responsible for the stimulation of effort abilities resulting from supplementation with betaine.
The supplements containing betaine hydrochloride are also used by people with stomach achlorhydria in order to decrease pH of stomach juice. The key role is played here by acid radical of this compound. Therefore, people who deal with hyperacidity should be especially careful with supplementation of this form of trimethylglycine.