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A precise dose should be adjusted to individual needs. It may be 1 to 6 capsules a day. For better absorption, it is worth taking the preparation during a meal. Higher doses should be divided into several portions and taken at a few hour intervals.
Increased need for minerals especially concerns people who apply poor, devastating diets or poorly balanced diets with low amount of vegetables and fruits. Also sportsmen and people who perform physical work are prone to deficiencies.
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Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
Vitamin K exists in the triad of vitamins: menaquinone (vitamin. K1), menadione (vitamin. K2) and menadione (vitamin. K3), soluble in fat. It is produced by bacteria in the human colon. Natural sources of vitamin. K are: eggs, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, meat, milk, lettuce, spinach, fish oil and liver. The synthetic form is administered to newborns, to reduce the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. Used as a antihaemorrhagic, due to its participation in the process of prothrombin. Increases antibacterial and antifungal immunity. Prevents abundant bleeding during menstruation of women.
Vitamin K deficiency causes external bleeding and ecchymosis on skin, decreased prothrombin synthesis in the liver (especially while taking antibiotics and sulfanilamide).
Vitamin K1 (phytomenadione or phylloquinone) is a form of vitamin K containing 4 isoprenoid groups (3 saturated and 1 unsaturated). It is synthesized in natural conditions only in plants. We will find it mainly in green leafy vegetables and some vegetable oils; its amount in the green parts of plants is proportional to the amount of chlorophyll contained there.
The organs characterized by the high concentration of vitamin K are mainly the liver (the content of vitamin K1 exceeds the content of MK-7 10 times) and the heart. It is suggested that vitamin K1 is also stored in bone tissue. It is suspected that ca. 90% of the absorbed phytomenadione is subjected to transformations to MK-4 in case of the insufficient supply of menaquinone with diet.
Apart from a well-discovered role in the production of blood coagulation factors, vitamin K1 also shows a wider activity - it may constitute one of the elements of the prophylaxis of osteoporosis, disorders of the nervous system and cancers.
Therefore, supplementation with vitamin K1 may turn out to be very helpful, especially in the area of the process of blood coagulation and bone metabolism.
What is Vitamin K2?
Vitamin K2 belongs to fat-soluble vitamins It is an important activator of many enzymes and proteins It shows a positive action on calcium balance by activating MGP protein and osteocalcin. This results in the removal of calcium deposits from blood vessel walls and transport of ions of this element to the area where it fulfills its function – teeth and bones. It reduces therefore the calcification of blood vessels and thus the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, it is a constituent of coagulation factors and cosequently prevents haemorrhages. It shows a synergistic action in combination with vitamin D and magnesium.
Vitamin K2 in the form of a dietary supplement of renowned brands e.g. Now Foods, Swanson, Life Extension, Jarrow Formulas and Thorne Research) can be found in formulas available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium oxide – the most common form of this macroelement in supplementation that is essential to the human body. It belongs to a group of key intracellular cations and that is why its adequate levels are critical to maintaining the body’s homeostasis. An active lifestyle increases requirements for magnesium and that is why its supplementation is recommended strongly to athletes.
The most common symptoms associated with magnesium deficiencies are muscle cramps and eye twitches. This is connected with a significant impact of magnesium ions on the efficiency of the nervous system. Its adequate intake helps maintain neuromotor fitness. Deficiencies of this element are also said to aggravate symptoms of depression.
What is more, magnesium supplementation supports healthy cardiovascular function. It is suggested that its deficiencies promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hypertension. Too low dietary magnesium intake is associated with arrythmia and increased risk of heart attack.
Magnesium supplements are recommended to individuals doing hard mental work and learning. Its healthy levels enhance focus and may facilitate learning. It has a beneficial impact on sleep quality.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Copper - trace mineral that facilitates the introduction of iron into hemoglobin, allowing the correct functioning of antioxidant processes. It is an important component of enzymes that affect the processes of aerobic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and in the formation of collagen. With proper diet, do not use supplements containing copper, as an overdose can cause insomnia, hair loss. It occurs in foods such as legumes, offal, plums, seafood. Copper compounds must be used in a responsible way, because many of them have toxic properties.
Dosing: A sufficient amount of copper provides proper diet.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae – yeasts from the group of monocellular fungi, commonly used by the researchers as test material, because of its small environment requirements. They are also popular in food industry.
The yeasts show health-promoting properties and are a good substitute for offal in vegetarian diet. They are a good source for vitamins, particularly B-vitamins. They have also positive influence on the condition of bacterial microflora, as they improve the functioning of intestinal barrier.
In dietary supplements and drugs, they are used mainly as a support for the functioning of the digestive system. They are also present in products improving the quality of skin, hair and nails, however the newest research suggests that the influence on these tissues results from the influence on the microbiota.
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Chlorine (chemical element from the group of halogens) - in the natural form of gas it is poisonous and water-soluble (until recently used as a disinfectant in the water supply system, now replaced by fluorination). It is chemically active element. It is used in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium (KCl). It participates in the process of digestion and maintains acid-base balance in the body, removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver (antitoxin). Natural source of chlorine for the body is salt and bladderwrack.
Chlorine deficiency can occur due to excessive sweating, vomiting, causing digestive tract problems. It also causes loss of hair and teeth.
Excess chlorine, for example. Drink excessive amounts of chlorinated water, destroys bacterial flora and vitamin E.
Dosage: Daily dose should not exceed 15 grams.
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