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Sex is very important in the activity of xenobiotics (substances provided to the organism from outside). Toxicological studies unambiguously confirm higher sensitivity of women than men to the activity of poisons, harmful compounds present in the environment or long-metabolized drugs. Therefore, women should pay special attention to the prophylaxis and complex care of health. A multi-vitamin preparation is a simple and comfortable way to complement deficiencies.
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Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
Vitamin K exists in the triad of vitamins: menaquinone (vitamin. K1), menadione (vitamin. K2) and menadione (vitamin. K3), soluble in fat. It is produced by bacteria in the human colon. Natural sources of vitamin. K are: eggs, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, meat, milk, lettuce, spinach, fish oil and liver. The synthetic form is administered to newborns, to reduce the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. Used as a antihaemorrhagic, due to its participation in the process of prothrombin. Increases antibacterial and antifungal immunity. Prevents abundant bleeding during menstruation of women.
Vitamin K deficiency causes external bleeding and ecchymosis on skin, decreased prothrombin synthesis in the liver (especially while taking antibiotics and sulfanilamide).
Vitamin B1 (thiamin, vitamin B) improves mental alertness and strengthens the nervous system ensuring the proper functioning of the brain. It improves cardiac and muscular system. It is suportive in the treatment of shingles. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Natural source of vitamin B1 are brown bread, yeast, eggs, raw vegetables, meat, milk, legumes, cheese.
Vitamin B1 deficiency hinders the processes of decomposition of sugars (catabolism), causes a loss of appetite and disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract, can cause polyneuritis and disease beriberi.
Dosage: Recommended daily intake is 1-2 mg.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
What is pyridoxine hydrochloride?
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a basic, the most commonly used form of vitamin B6 in supplements and fortified foods. It is a vitamin soluble in water. It converts to the active form of the vitamin - pyridoxal phosphate.
Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. It takes part in the production of many neurotransmitters, such as GABA, serotonin and catecholamines and it takes part in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. It is an important factor for the process of the creation of red cells and hemoglobin and its deficit may be one of the factors causing anemia. This vitamin contributes to maintaining proper energy metabolism and is important for maintaining well-being and good psychological condition. Its presence supports the breakdown of pro-inflammatory homocysteine to cysteine and further metabolites, thanks to which it may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiological incidents.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride may be found in many vitamin B complexes and vitamin-mineral preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid, folacin, vitamin M) is part of a complex of B vitamins soluble in water. It takes part in the production of red blood cells, in cooperation with vitamin B12, preventing anaemia progression, its molecules are involved in catalysis of hematopoietic processes. Together with vitamins B6 and B12 it helps in the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. It eliminates disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract. It affects the proper functioning of the immune system. Necessary during pregnancy, because its deficiency causes neural tube defects in the fetus. The natural ingredient of yeast, eggs, liver, green vegetables and it is synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal bacteria.
Dosage: The daily requirement is 0.1-0.2 mg.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin soluble in liquids. Participates in the production of red blood cells and is essential in the absorption of iron by the body. It calming effect, a positive effect on concentration and memory. Intensifies its action in cooperation with folic acid (vitamin M). Usually occurs in animal products, fish and dairy products. It contains trace elements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, general and immunity weakness, inhibiting of growth and damage to the myelin sheath of nerves.
What is cyanocobalamin?
Cyanocobalamin is a basic, the most commonly met form of vitamin B12 in vitamin B complexes and multivitamins available on the market.
Vitamin B12 is the most known for its influence on neurology. It takes part in building and regenerating myelin sheaths of neurons, thanks to which it contributes to the protection of the nervous system against damages. Because of the ability to increase the level of S-Adenosyl methionine, vitamin B12 may contribute to more efficient synthesis of many neurotransmitters, thanks to which it positively influences well-being and psychical condition.
This vitamin is also engaged in the process of blood production and its deficiencies contribute to the creation of megaloblastic anemia. Its deficits may also concern vegetarians and vegans, elderly people, people with absorption disorders and those using drugs neutralizing gastric acid.
Cyanocobalamin is included in the composition of many complex vitamin supplements that may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Vitamin B5 (calcium pantothenate, pantothenic acid, pantotenol) is part of a complex of B vitamins affects the development of the central nervous system, is the building substance of cells. In the body synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It occurs in animal products (meat, kidneys, liver) and plants (wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, grains, green vegetables). Prevents fatigue and excessive stress, accelerates the healing of cuts and wounds, acts as a stimulant for the side effects of the use of antibiotics. Deficiency causes skin changes, and difficulty in blood clotting.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Calcium carbonate – a salt of carbonic acid and calcium, used in dietary supplements as one of the calcium forms, because of its high bioavailability. It is an alkaline salt, which is why it is used for neutralisation of the environment in the stomach.
Calcium is a macroelement necessary for the proper functioning of the body system. It is a building material of teeth and bones as well as it determines their mechanical strength. The proper supply of calcium prevents osteoporosis in elderly people and allows for the proper development of skeletal system in children. It is an activator of many enzymes, is involved in the inflammatory processes and regulates secretion of particular hormones. It is also essential for muscle contraction and determines blood coagulation. Moreover, calcium ions allow for transmission of nerve impulses by synapses, so that they regulate the proper neural transmission.
The demand for calcium increases with training intensity, which is why it is recommended for athletes to increase calcium supply. Calcium deficiency can be caused by high-protein diet.
The iron part of the dye in the form of the heme (hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat), a non-haem (in plant), and enzymes responsible for transport and storage of oxygen in the body. It occurs in enzymes responsible for: the metabolism of fatty acids, prostaglandin biosynthesis, catabolism of tryptophan. The absorption of iron in plant is lower than in animal products. In plant foods, it is reduced by contained chemicals: phytates and oxalates, also calcium and high acidity (pH factor). Only 8% of the intake of iron is absorbed by the body and transported to the blood. For tts absorption is needed sufficient amount of: cobalt, manganese, copper and vitamin C. Iron itself is essential for the metabolism of B vitamins. Source of acquisition of iron are animal products (meat, organ meats, egg yolks) and plant products (whole grain bread, beans , cocoa, parsley, nuts, soy). Iron is also present in synthetic form as a component of vitamin-mineral and mineral and mono-preparation supplements, often enriched with vitamin C. Supplements containing iron compounds are recommended for athletes during intense training and those on a meatless diet (vegetarians and vegans).
Iron deficiency causes anaemia. Using a large amount of strong coffee or tea hinders the absorption of iron. Symptoms of iron deficiency are: insomnia, diarrhea, impaired body temperature, loss of papillae on the tongue, reduced exercise capacity, and reduced intellectual and psychological efficiency.
Excess iron reduces the absorption of other elements (e.g. zinc, copper), reduced immunity, causing tissue damage of some organs (kidney, liver, heart), increased risk of cancer.
Dosage: 3-12 mg per day.
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Kelp - seaweed belonging to the brown algae in the order Laminariales, which is a valuable source of iodine, necessary for thyroid function and reduce body fat, affecting the metabolic rate as well as participating in the detoxification of the body. It is a source of alginates, minerals and vitamins. Positive effect on the appearance of the skin, nails and teeth and hair. Available in dietary supplements and sports in the category of "health and beauty" in the form mono-preparations and multiple mineralizing a vitamin supplements, fat burners and other means of thermogenic effect, slimming, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: in terms of pure iodine 150 - 250mcg / 24h. Higher doses by prior arrangement with your doctor or nutritionist.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium oxide – the most common form of this macroelement in supplementation that is essential to the human body. It belongs to a group of key intracellular cations and that is why its adequate levels are critical to maintaining the body’s homeostasis. An active lifestyle increases requirements for magnesium and that is why its supplementation is recommended strongly to athletes.
The most common symptoms associated with magnesium deficiencies are muscle cramps and eye twitches. This is connected with a significant impact of magnesium ions on the efficiency of the nervous system. Its adequate intake helps maintain neuromotor fitness. Deficiencies of this element are also said to aggravate symptoms of depression.
What is more, magnesium supplementation supports healthy cardiovascular function. It is suggested that its deficiencies promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hypertension. Too low dietary magnesium intake is associated with arrythmia and increased risk of heart attack.
Magnesium supplements are recommended to individuals doing hard mental work and learning. Its healthy levels enhance focus and may facilitate learning. It has a beneficial impact on sleep quality.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Zinc citrate - an organic form of zinc with very good assimilability and bioavailability. In one molecule of zinc citrate, zinc ions constitute 34% of the compound’s mass. Therefore, 100 mg of the substance will provide 34 mg of zinc ions. It should be borne in mind when buying dietary supplements, in which only the mass of the whole compound in a portion is provided. Supplementation with zinc in the form of citrate in some people may cause ailments of the digestive system - nausea, appetite drop or stomachache. Zinc in the form of zinc citrate should be best taken between meals, due to the fact that many food products may limit the absorption of this element, especially products rich in phytates, dairy products or fiber.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Copper - trace mineral that facilitates the introduction of iron into hemoglobin, allowing the correct functioning of antioxidant processes. It is an important component of enzymes that affect the processes of aerobic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and in the formation of collagen. With proper diet, do not use supplements containing copper, as an overdose can cause insomnia, hair loss. It occurs in foods such as legumes, offal, plums, seafood. Copper compounds must be used in a responsible way, because many of them have toxic properties.
Dosing: A sufficient amount of copper provides proper diet.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
HCA (hydroxycitric acid), an organic acid that occurs in the peel and fruit plants: Tamarindus and garcinia, citrate lyase inhibitor, it can reduce appetite and food intake and slow down the synthesis of fatty acids and increase glycogen synthesis in the liver. Used in sports supplementation as a factor in weight control while reducing body fat, and also prophylactically with eating high-calorie meals. It can be used in a diet for people with low physical activity. It is available as mono-preparation and multicomponent slimming supplements, acting neutrally for people sensitized to caffeine.
Dosage: 300-1200 mg per day in divided doses.
Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), of which a raw material is medical leaf (Folium Uvae-ursi), which is a rich source of active substances: flavonoids, phenolic glycosides, tannins, organic acids, mucus, triterpenes and resins. An important component is arbutin, having a diuretic effect (allowing for the removal of excess fluid out of the body), and anti-bacteria, against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections. It also acts as an astringent, stopping bleeding from damaged blood vessels. In the sports supplementation it is used due to the diuretic potential, it is used in programs to improve the aesthetics of the body and the composition and in certaincweight loss thermogenic supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Note: In Poland, bearberry is under partial protection. A cautious use is also recommended and time limits for use, as there may be side effects (symptoms of hydroquinone poisoning- nausea, stomach irritation, anaemia).
Dosage depends on the quality and concentration of raw materials, note the comment regarding the duration of use and dose.
ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a vitamin-like substance, a metabolite of catecholamines with strong antioxidant properties, it enhances anti-free-radicals action of some vitamins (A and E). ALA is synthesized at low levels by the body. It is a component of such products as broccoli, yeast, chicken liver, spinach. In the medicine it is used in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy (tissues shows a sensitivity to the insulin hormone, and it stimulates blood sugar levels). It has a positive effect on the functioning of the circulatory system and heart by the anti-arteriosclerosis action. It improves transport of creatine. It affects the storage of glycogen in muscle and liver.
Antioxidant properties of ALA are used in sports supplementation, along with the assimilation of nutrients. ALA is found in the form of mono-formula and is a compound of multicomponent products as: amino acids, creatine nitrogen boosters, as well as insulin-like (insulin-mimetic substances).
Butchers Broom (ruscus aculeatus), is a source of alkaloids, phytosterols, flavonoids and steroidal saponins, such as ruscogenin, ruscoside. It has a diuretic effect and allows for the excretion of excess fluid from the body. Allows a better blood circulation and the function of neural tissue sealing the walls of blood vessels. Used to transport nutrients allows greater bioavailability of the muscle tissue and nerve. Butscher Broom in sports supplementation is rarely used, it is rather used as a support activity.
Ostivone, is a special formula containing ipriflavones (synthetic compounds corresponding isoflavones). Used to improve the condition of the bone tissue, increase bone density and reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis. Unconfirmed with scientific research is the information about the effect on the synthesis and secretion of the hormone responsible for the calcium metabolism (calcitonin) and reducing the activity of osteoclasts. Due to the lack of detailed studies, it has not gained too many enthusiasts in the domestic market. They are components of vitaminizing, vitamin-mineralizing and functional supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Grape seed extract is a valuable source of active ingredients: flavonoids, fatty acids, proanthocyanidins and vitamin E, an antioxidant, binding free radicals, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregating. It is a component of a pro-health supplements enhancing preventive treatment of the circulatory system diseases. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements or as a component of nutritional supplements (creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters), vitamin, herbal detoxificating.
Dosage: 50-100 mg per day.
Vitis vinifera (grape vine), a rich source of active substances. Food and medicinal raw material are the leaves (Folium Vitis veniferae) and fruit (Fructus Vitis veniferae). The leaves are a source of obtaining anthocyanins, flavonoids (quercetin), tannins, pectin, triterpenes and vitamins. The fruits have sugars, cellulose, enzymes, flavonoids, tannins, organic acids, pectins, minerals (cobalt, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron), vitamins (C, B1, B2, B6, B12 and PP, M [Folic Acid] ). Preparations from the leaves of grape are diuretics, detoxifying, anti-bleeding and anticoagulation, accelerate healing of ulcers and wounds). Decoctions of the leaves are used topically for bathing skin, wounds. Fruits, in addition to the nutritional properties (when consumed fresh) have a strengthening effect, a diuretic, affect the lipid level, regulate blood pressure, hematopoetic, anti-anaemia, affect the acid-base balance. The dried fruit (raisins) are nourishing and slightly laxative. Wines produced from the vine, both white (a diuretic and is used in diseases of the kidneys), and red (used to treat diseases of the digestive tract). Grape wine eliminates E. coli and vibrio cholerae. In the supplementation leaves are used less frequently than the fruit skin and seeds of grapes (which are the source of powerful antioxidants, including resveratrol). Extract of Vitis vinifera is a component of dietary supplements with variety of applications, available at the www.muscle-zone.pl
Citrus bioflavonoids (flavanones) - are found in citrus fruits (oranges and bitter grapefruit) and contain naringenin and naringenin with a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and enhancing metabolism of a number of substances. Increase immunity and strengthen the walls of blood vessels. Reduce the secretion of cortisol, while increasing the norepinephrine hormone allowing for the reduction of body fat. Citrus flavonoids are an ingredient of supplements in the category of "health and beauty", vitaminizing supplements, thermogenics, herbal blends supporting the functioning of the endocrine system.
Soy isoflavones are substances of plant origin, their sources are legumes, mainly soybeans of Glycine hispida, of which grains (Semen sojae) are a food and medical raw material Soy isoflavones are different from other flavones in the construction of the carbon skeleton. Soybeans contain up to 45% of protein, fibre, lecithin, genistein and daidzein. Soy isoflavones lower blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Alternatively the term phytoestrogens is used because they have a structure analogous to the female hormone - estradiol, and show a slight estrogenic activity. They show health-beneficialaction in the case of heart disease, hypertensive disease of blood, affect the lipid blood profile, particularly recommended for women during menopause.
Dosage: 20-80 mg per day.
Lycopene, an organic compound, carotenoid form xanthophylls group, a natural dye of plant origin, colouring to bright red, occurring i.e. in tomatoes and carrots. It has the strongest antioxidant potential (relatively to the singlet oxygen) from the carotenes. It is not participating, in contrast to other carotenes, in the transformation of vitamin A. It reduces the risk of lung cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases of the circulatory system, it is a component of nutrient, vitaminizing, vitamin-mineralizing and functional supplements, (often in combination with beta-carotene, lutein) supporting reduction of body fat, improving skin complexion, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g / 24h
Lutein, a derivative of alpha-carotene is a natural plant dye, colouring in yellow, is also present in the yolk of egg. In the body, located primarily in the retina of the human eye (together with Zeaxanthin), it acts as a natural filter for the eye, absorbing ultraviolet radiation. It is a powerful antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and multi-compound supplements with antioxidant, protecting the eyes, action, as well as multivitamins, creatine stacks and no-boosters.
Alpha-carotene pigment is of plant origin, the chemical compound belongs to the carotenoids. The source of obtaining alpha-carotene are i.e. .: broccoli, yams (sweet potatoes), carrots, spinach, green beans. It has the antioxidant potential and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer (e.g. Lung cancer).
In the supplements it is often used with other carotenes (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein), as the main component of functional, nutrients, vitamins-minerals and vitamins supplements.
Cryptoxanthin is a natural dye derived from foods of plant origin, belongs to the carotenoids. It is present in the skins of apples, bitter orange and papaya, as well as in foods of animal origin (e.g. hen eggs yolks and butter). It has the antioxidant potential, acts as provitamin A. In the sports supplementation itis a component of nutrient (vitamins and vitamin-mineral) and functional supplements. Often found in mixtures with other carotenoids (e.g. Beta-carotene lutein). Available in the form of supplements at www.muscle-zone.pl
Zeaxanthin is a natural plant dye, a compound classified as carotenoids found in foods of plant origin, essential for the proper functioning of vision. Located on the retina, the so-called. yellow macula, it is responsible for visual acuity. Together with lutein (belonging to the carotenoid) it is an antioxidant, also it has the ability to absorb energy of blue light protecting eyes from organ damage.
Zeaxanthin is a component of formulations (often in combination with other carotenoids) enhancing the functioning of the organs of sight.
Dosage: Up to 2 mg per day.
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