To achieve best effects creatine may be combined with caffeine, beta-alanine or leucine. Using creatine is recommended to people who want to boost energy level and stamina as well as accelerate the process of gaining muscle mass. One should take care about proper intake of liquids, as their deficit during creatine use may lead to diarrhea and nausea. Moreover, it is recommended to use creatine according to the indications to avoid side effects such as the uncomfortable feeling of stomach contraction. I especially recommend taking creatine in the around-training time – 5 g before and 5 g with a protein shake after training.
The energy value is determined by the chemical composition of the food product, by means of the so-called. physiological equivalents energy., determining the value of metabolic energy contained in 1 g of the component. Most commonly used is the equivalent of Atwater: protein 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates 4kcal/g, and for fat 9kcal/g.
Fat is an essential nutrient plant and animal organisms. Because of the nutritional value and composition of fats are divided into: saturated (mono-saturated and multi-saturated fatty acids) and unsaturated fatty acids (including essential fatty acids - EFA). The group of lipids include lipids (triacylglycerols, waxes), complex fats (glycolipids, phospholipids), sterols and isoprenoids. Saturated fatty acids is a group of fatty acids having different carbon chain lengths, in which except for the carboxyl group, each of the carbon atoms is bound by a single bond. May adversely affect the lipid profile, so they can be used in limited quantities. Fats are a concentrated source of energy, with different flavours, facilitating the consumption and swallowing of food. They have building functions (part of cell membranes and co-create the white matter of the brain). EFAs are precursors of tissue hormones and biologically active compounds. The unsaturated fatty acids include fatty acids from the group Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 (the last digit indicates, on which, counting of the end of the chain, there is a double bond in the appropriate carbon chain. The essential fatty acids include: acids, medium-Omega-3 [n-3 ] included in EFAs [essential fatty acids], and long chain (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) Omega-6 and Omega-9. the number indicates that the last double bond in the carbon chain is on the third from the end carbon atom. The acids from the omega 3 group are essential components of cell membranes, they are precursors of eicosanoids and biological activators. They must be combined with ingestion in suitable proportions of Omega-6 acids.
Dosage: Depending on demand and applied diet. It is generally accepted that fats should constitute 20-30% of the energy (calorie) of meals daily.
Saturated fatty acids are a group of fatty acid having different carbon chain lengths, in which except for the carboxyl group, each of the carbon atoms is linked by a single bond. Saturated fatty acids are commonly known as bad fat, which might adversely affect the cholesterol level, in particular by the action of acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, and therefore their consumption should be reduced. Research carried out in this matter do not confirm entirely the prevailing beliefs.
Carbohydrates are an essential nutrient. They are divided into: simple sugars (monosaccharides), disaccharides and polysaccharides. In terms of the human bioavailability of carbohydrates is divided into: digestabe, those which are digested in the gastrointestinal tract by transferring energy to the tissues or cells (such as starch, fructose) and indigestable, resistant to digestive enzymes (e.g. cellulose) . Affects blood glucose levels (glycemic index) and the metabolism of insulin (insulin index). The greatest demand for carbohydrates occurs before physical activity or in the middle of it, because they increase the exercise capacity, consumed after exercise provide regeneration. In the sports diet the absorption rate it is important of carbohydrates and reactions of the organism. Available in mono-preparation supplements and part of the energetic supplements, creatine stacks, nitrogen boosters.
Dosage: according to the statistics of the Institute of Food and Nutrition, carbohydrates should comprise about 50% of daily energy intake. In some diets, used residual carbohydrate consumption, not exceeding 30g / 24h.
Sugars - is the term used to refer to the crystal structure of the carbohydrate (sugar), characterized by a sweet taste. This group includes: sucrose (obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets and natural foods), fruit sugars (fructose) and glucose. Carbohydrate intake should not exceed 10% of the energy consumed during the day meals. Excess intake of sugars leading to diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis and obesity. Particular caution should be performed carbohydrate intake by athletes of sculpting disciplines and people on a diet. A greater need for carbohydrates, due being easily accessible sources of energy, may be in the periods before and after workouts and before and after the fight. Preparations available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Proteins (proteins, polypeptides) is a polymer, of which the basic units (monomers) are amino acids. Protein is composed of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, and is an elementary nutrient necessary for the proper functioning of the body, an ingredient and a component of tissues, part of the hormones and enzymes and other bioactive substances. Protein determines the proper metabolism and energy processes, as well as all other life processes. The sources of natural proteins are foods of animal origin (including meat, fish, eggs, dairy products) and plant origin (legumes, soy). Deficiency of protein leads to protein malnutrition and a significant weakening of the body. It can lead to anaemia, reduced immunity, muscle relaxation, disorders of the digestive system. Also, overdose protein is undesirable because it can lead to acidification of the body, and interfere with the digestive system and an increase in the concentration of homocysteine in the blood. It is a component of many supplements and nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body, both showing a low physical activity, or training the strength and endurance competitions.
Dosage: strength athletes: approx. 1.7 - 2.5 g / 1 kg of body weight; endurance athletes and strength -endurance athletes approx. 1.3 - 2 g / 1 kg of body weight, people with low activity approx. 0.8 - 1.1 g / 1 kg of body weight / 24h. In estimating the amount of protein, you should take into account the intake of other nutrients (carbohydrates and fats)
Salt (sodium chloride, or table salt), natural source of electrolytes (chlorine and potassium), regulating water and electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body, affecting the nervous system and blood pressure. Sodium is an essential element for the proper growth. The proper dose of salt prevents overheating of the body and solar stroke. It provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves the body. Chlorine in combination with sodium, is involved in the digestive process and maintains acid-base balance in the body, as antitoxin removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver. Salt is a flavour component and preservative of many foods, nutritional supplements and mixtures of electrolytes, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: no specific standards of consumption, used so as to provide sufficient amount of electrolytes to the body (sodium and chloride).
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Creatine (β-methylguanidoacetic acid) is an endogenous substance, synthesized from the acids present in liver and kidney (L-arginine, L-glycine and L-methionine) and consumption of meat. Its action ensures an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, which is an energy carrier, increases the hydration of cells and muscle glycogen stores. In the sports supplementation creatine is stored in the muscles, which improves energy management, exercise capacity and quick recovery and muscle growth. It has the ergogenic, anabolic and anti-catabolic potential.
Creatine is one of the high-performance substances used in competitive sports, with a reputation confirmed by scientific research. In the form of mono-preparation supplements such as creatine ester, creatine malate, creatine monohydrate, and the multi-component supplements (both various forms of creatine, as well as other substances, precursors of nitric oxide, the BCAA type amino acids). Supplements containing creatine available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: depending on the form of preparation, the type of exercise and weight, normally one of the following models of creatine dosage is used:
- cyclic supplementation: 5 - 10g per day in 1 - 3 portions a day, 2 - 5 g per dose. Cycle time approx. 4 - 12 weeks
- cyclic supplementation with saturated phase: first 5 - 7 days 20 - 30g per day on Day 4 - 6 doses 4 - 6g per serving, then the maintenance phase 2 - 10g per day in divided doses. Cycle time approx. 4 - 8 weeks
- constant supplementation: 0.03 - 0.05 g per kg body weight for an extended period of time.
Creatine malate (tri-creatine malate, TCM, di-creatine malate) is a combination of one molecule of creatine and three (or two) of molecules of malic acid in the ionized form (malate) in one molecule. It has better solubility in liquids of creatine monohydrate. Malate is involved in energy conversion enhancing effect of creatine in this regard. With proper use of creatine malate, there is an increase in exercise capacity of the body (strength and endurance), acceleration - although slower than provide other compounds creatine for better quality - of increase in lean body mass, provides faster and better biological regeneration after exercise. To have a fast saturation of the muscles with creatine, products containing insulin should be used (carbohydrates and proteins) or insulin-mimetic (and the substances of similar ALA, D-pinitol, taurine). Creatine malate is available in the form of powders and capsules (mono-preparation supplements and creatine stacks), for purchase at muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: Usual recommendation in sports, depends on the form of supplement, the type of exercises and weight, uses one of the following creatine dosage models:
- cyclic supplementation: 5-10g per day in 1-3 portions during the day, 2-5g per dose. Cycle length approx. 4-12 weeks
- Constant supplementation: 0,03-0,05g per kg of body weight for an extended period of time.
Creatine ethyl ester (CEE) - Creatine with strong anabolic, catabolic and erogenic potential obtained through esterification, to obtain a higher bioavailability of creatine, and thus reducing the value of its individual doses. This results in lower weight gain than during use of special forms of creatine but better quality. Creatine ethyl ester is used in sports supplementation to obtain improvement in exercise capacity (strength and endurance) as mono-preparation supplement (in tablet form) or as a nutritional supplement (creatine stacks) and pre-workout supplements.
Alpha-ketoglutarate creatine is an intermediary product of the Krebs cycle, the salt of glutaric acid and creatine. It has a high ergogenic (glutaric acid) and anabolic (creatine) potential. Used in a combination - enhance the effect (synergism). The use of regular Creatine alpha-ketoglutarate increases remarkably exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates the growth of lean body mass and enhances recovering after a hard workout. On the Polish market is available only as a component of creatine stacks.
Dosage: usually 4-8 grams per day, mainly before- and after of training.
Creatine pyruvate (creatine pyruvate) is formed from the binding of molecules of the two components in one molecule. Pyruvate (pyruvic acid belonging to the oxo acids) is formed as an intermediate product of metabolism of saccharides, proteins and fats, it is an important participant in the energy conversion, of which the intracellular level affects the exercise capacity (strength and endurance), accelerates the reduction of body fat. Phosphocreatine (a form of creatine) is involved in maintaining the balance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with the ability to replenish in the organism, which is the main carrier of energy within cells. It improves the hydration of muscle cells and the content of glycogen accumulated in them.
The use of creatine pyruvate is recommended to athletes and other sportsmen in all fields of sport and people with high physical activity as part of the diet and support the effort (provides rapid strength gain, accelerates regeneration of the body), causing increases in lean body mass and improve its aesthetics and reduce body fat. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and a component of creatine stacks, available for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl..
Dosage: 2 - 3 mg in the morning and in the evening.
Creatine citrate is formed from the combination of creatine molecules and three molecules of citric acid in one molecule. It is a substance soluble in body fluids, more soluble than creatine monohydrate. Ionized citric acid (citrate) is involved in energy conversion, by acting in conjunction with creatine, increases this potential and gives the compound an additional properties. Creatine citrate, when used systematically, effects the energy storage, supporting the exercise capacity (strength and endurance) and increase of muscle mass. It has a regenerative ability through a pH, return to ATP balance in combination with anabolic activity of kinases activated by creatine. Due to the responsibility of the hormone insulin for the transport of creatine into the muscle cells, it is desirable to use creatine during meals or by the use of supplements (carbohydrate, carbohydrate-protein, insulin-like) and citrate creatine mono-preparation and multi-compaund supplements and as supplement to creatine stacks.
Dosage: Depending on the form of supplement, the type of exercise and weight, usually used one of the following creatine supplementation models:
1) supplementation cycle: 5-10g per day in 1-3 portions during the day, 2-5g per dose. Cycle length of about 4-12 weeks
2) constant supplementation: 0,03-0,05g per kg body weight for an extended period of time.
Taurine – non-protein amino acid containing sulphur, which is synthesized in the body from methionine and cysteine, present in sufficient amount in human or animal body (in the brain, heart and skeletal), although in some cases must be supplemented. Significantly affects the calcium content in the cells and stabilizes the water and electrolyte balance and maintains acid-base balance. Takes part in the synthesis of bile acids. In the body acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It is an insulin-mimetic improving insulin metabolism, responsible for transport of nutrients (such as amino acids, glucose, creatine) to the cells and muscle tissue. These properties determine that it is a valued mono-preparation supplement and valuable addition to creatine and amino acid supplements, recommended for psycho-pchysically active people and athletes and other competitive sportsmen in pre- and post-workout periods.
Dosage: 3 grams per day.