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Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Alpha-carotene pigment is of plant origin, the chemical compound belongs to the carotenoids. The source of obtaining alpha-carotene are i.e. .: broccoli, yams (sweet potatoes), carrots, spinach, green beans. It has the antioxidant potential and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer (e.g. Lung cancer).
In the supplements it is often used with other carotenes (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein), as the main component of functional, nutrients, vitamins-minerals and vitamins supplements.
Beta-carotene (provitamin A) is a fat-soluble form of vitamin A (retinol). It is a necessary vitamin for the development and acquisition of proteins, necessary to rebuild a bone structure. Irreplaceable in the treatment of eye diseases (prevents decrease of vision and so called night blindness). It strengthens the immune system. It is a strong oxidant. In its natural form it can be found found only in plants (unlike retinol, which is present in foods of animal origin) such as chard, squash, kale, carrots, apricots, tomatoes). Available in the form of supplements and nutrients as an essential component of the sports diet.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
D-alpha-tocopherol – a natural form of vitamin E which is indicated as the most optimum for supplementation. It helps correct effectively deficiencies of this compound which is extremely crucial for the human body.
Vitamin E is a very important bioactive substance found in many tissues and required for normal functioning of the body. Its deficiencies may be manifested by impaired cognitive abilities and vision, muscle weakness and infertility. It is involved in erythropoiesis and that is why its low intake may lead to anaemia.
In addition, vitamin E has an important role as an antioxidant in the human body. It has the ability to reduce the amount of free radicals, thereby decreasing negative oxidative stress.
During supplementation with d-alpha-tocopherol, we should remember that it belongs to fat-soluble compounds, along with vitamin A, D and K. Because of that, supplements with vitamin E should be taken with a fat-containing meal.
Vitamin K exists in the triad of vitamins: menaquinone (vitamin. K1), menadione (vitamin. K2) and menadione (vitamin. K3), soluble in fat. It is produced by bacteria in the human colon. Natural sources of vitamin. K are: eggs, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, meat, milk, lettuce, spinach, fish oil and liver. The synthetic form is administered to newborns, to reduce the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. Used as a antihaemorrhagic, due to its participation in the process of prothrombin. Increases antibacterial and antifungal immunity. Prevents abundant bleeding during menstruation of women.
Vitamin K deficiency causes external bleeding and ecchymosis on skin, decreased prothrombin synthesis in the liver (especially while taking antibiotics and sulfanilamide).
Vitamin B1 (thiamin, vitamin B) improves mental alertness and strengthens the nervous system ensuring the proper functioning of the brain. It improves cardiac and muscular system. It is suportive in the treatment of shingles. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Natural source of vitamin B1 are brown bread, yeast, eggs, raw vegetables, meat, milk, legumes, cheese.
Vitamin B1 deficiency hinders the processes of decomposition of sugars (catabolism), causes a loss of appetite and disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract, can cause polyneuritis and disease beriberi.
Dosage: Recommended daily intake is 1-2 mg.
Thiamine hydrochloride - a highly bioavailable form of thiamine, also called vitamin B1. Due to an important role that it plays in carbohydrate metabolism, its increased supply is recommended to people with excessively high concentration of sugar in blood. It facilitates their processing in the organism and supports the activities that aim at restoring optimal glycemia. An important role in the metabolism of nutrients is also played by an integral component of carboxylase coenzyme - thiamine pyrophosphate.
Some source suggest the effectiveness of thiamine in relation to the health of the cardiovascular system, apart from decreasing glucose level in blood, it is also reflected in optimization of blood pressure. Although this aspect of effectiveness of vitamin B1 requires further research, it is another argument demonstrating special needs of taking care of proper thiamine supply by people from the risk group of the circulatory system diseases.
Among people who are especially prone to vitamin B1 deficiencies there are also people fighting with excess weight and frequently drinking alcohol.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Inositol hexanicotinate (IHN), also known as inositol hexaniacinate, is the inositol esterified with niacin.
IHN undergoes hydrolysis in the body, gradually releasing nicotinic acid and inositol. Such properties make this form not only very effective but also free of the side effect referred to as flush effect (redness mainly on the face, forearms and neck), which occurs in standard forms of niacin and is very unpleasant for many individuals.
Inositol hexanicotinate is a component of niacin-based dietary supplements. It is suggested that inositol hexanicotinate is as effective as niacin alone (may contribute to lowering cholesterol levels). Because of decreased risk of such symptoms as skin redness, itching and tingling, it can be a perfect solution for persons who resign from traditional vitamin B3 supplements due to these unpleasant effects.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9, is a synthetic form of naturally occurring folates. It needs to be transformed to folates in order to be biologically active also in the human organism. Therefore, its supplementation is recommended to people who do not have problems with methylation processes.
The majority of people associate folic acid with the period of pregnancy. It is definitely a justified association. Proper supply of vitamin B9 conditions correct development of the fetus and prevents disorders of neural tube defects in a baby.
Supplementation with folic acid also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system of adults. Some sources say that it is conducive to maintaining beneficial emotional states. Moreover, folic acid takes part in the process of erythropoiesis, thanks to which it enables efficient production of red cells.
Supplementation with folic acid should be also considered by men who deal with low sperm quality. It was proven that complementing the level of vitamin B9 is conducive to increasing reproductive abilities of men.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin soluble in liquids. Participates in the production of red blood cells and is essential in the absorption of iron by the body. It calming effect, a positive effect on concentration and memory. Intensifies its action in cooperation with folic acid (vitamin M). Usually occurs in animal products, fish and dairy products. It contains trace elements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, general and immunity weakness, inhibiting of growth and damage to the myelin sheath of nerves.
What is methylcobalamin?
Methylcobalamin is a biologically active form of vitamin B12. It is one of the two forms of this vitamin that may be used as cofactors in various reactions. It differs from popular cyanocobalamin in the presence of methyl group instead of cyanide, thanks to which it releases the organism from the need of neutralizing this harmful factor.
The methyl group from methylcobalamin may be transferred to homocysteine, thanks to which it comes back in the form of methionine in order to be further converted to SAMe, which is the main donor of methyl groups in our organism. These methyl groups may be then used in the processes of creatine production, in neurotransmitter metabolism and as DNA methylation, thanks to which we achieve proper energy level, better well-being and generally better condition of the organism. B12 is a coenzyme for three enzymes: isomerase, methyltransferase and dehalogenase.
Apart from the influence on the nervous system, the supply of vitamin B12 is also very important for the proper synthesis of red cells as well as hemoglobin and anemia prevention.
Methylcobalamin in mono-supplements and complex vitamin preparations may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Vitamin B5 (calcium pantothenate, pantothenic acid, pantotenol) is part of a complex of B vitamins affects the development of the central nervous system, is the building substance of cells. In the body synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It occurs in animal products (meat, kidneys, liver) and plants (wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, grains, green vegetables). Prevents fatigue and excessive stress, accelerates the healing of cuts and wounds, acts as a stimulant for the side effects of the use of antibiotics. Deficiency causes skin changes, and difficulty in blood clotting.
Calcium panthonenate – a salt of pantothenic acid and calcium used to raise the intake of this first substance, belonging to a group of compounds called vitamin B5. It is active in many biochemical processes in the human body as an extremely important factor for maintaining homeostasis.
Adequate intake of pantothenic acid helps maintain healthy metabolism of nutrients and obtain easily energy from them. Deficiencies of this compound may be manifested by chronic fatigue and lack of strength, especially in physically active persons.
What is more, pantothenic acid is present in the synthesis pathway of many vital hormones. Because of that, its sufficient supply is critical to hormonal balance. Testosterone is one of the hormones that are affected by pantothenic acid intake. Because of that, its deficiencies may have a negative effect on sexual function.
Pantothenic acid is also indicated to have a cardioprotective effect. It helps maintain normal cardiac function and reduces the risk of atherosclerosis by optimising the lipid profile.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Calcium D-Glucarate - the compound of glucaric acid and calcium, which apart from effectively increasing the level this mineral in the organism, demonstrates autonomous benefits which are not noted in case of other forms of calcium. This compound promotes the activity of glucuronidation, thanks to which, it supports the organism’s detoxification.
Moreover, it is demonstrated that D-Glucarate may support maintaining estrogens under control, optimizing hormonal balance. It entails, i.a. its anticarcinogenic activity, demonstrating special affinity to tumors, produced as a result of endocrine disorders. Another theory indicates that supplementation with this compound limits the activity of factors promoting carcinogenesis.
Supplementation with D-Glucarate is also used for the prophylaxis of cardiovascular system health. It demonstrates the ability to optimize lipid profile by decreasing the level of total cholesterol and regulation of HDL and LDL lipoproteins.
Phosphorus (chemical element of nitrogen family, occurring in several colours: white [poisonous], red, purple and black). It is a micro element involved in the physiological responses of the organism. It is a factor of the proper structure of bones and teeth, storing approx. 85% of the element in the form of hydroxyapatite. Adjusts the acidity in the body by increasing the pH. It is a component of nucleic acids. It also affects the proper functioning of the kidneys and the heart and nerves (transfer pulse). A natural source of obtaining of phosphorus are both plant (eggs, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and animal origin products (poultry, different types of meat, fish). Phosphorus deficiency and strengthen the bone structure can be adjusted by the use of appropriate nutrients and supplements.
Phosphorus deficiency causes bone disease (rickets) and phlegmon.
Excess of phosphorus (although it is excreted through the kidneys) can cause an imbalance of minerals (especially lower calcium levels, up to total loss). Particular caution in consuming products and specifics containing phosphorus is recommended to people suffering from chronic kidney disorders and the elderly. Excess of potassium should be balanced with the increased intake of calcium.
Dosage: 800-1200 mg per day. The higher limit of dosage should be consumed by pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Dicalcium phosphate - a combination of phosphorus and calcium (classified as macronutrients) in a single molecule. Calcium is the building substance of bones, teeth and activator of enzymes, including ATP-ers release ATP energy. It affects the blood clotting and muscle-nerve conduction. Phosphorus, besides a common feature with calcium- the bone structure, conditioning their development and normal condition, and also affects the formation of nucleic acids and brain tissue. It stimulates the acid-base. It participates in the processes of energy (phosphorylation) and phosphocreatine synthesis. Calcium phosphate is used in supplementation, as the ingredient of mineralizing, vitamin-mineral and pre- and post-workout supplements.
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Zinc citrate - an organic form of zinc with very good assimilability and bioavailability. In one molecule of zinc citrate, zinc ions constitute 34% of the compound’s mass. Therefore, 100 mg of the substance will provide 34 mg of zinc ions. It should be borne in mind when buying dietary supplements, in which only the mass of the whole compound in a portion is provided. Supplementation with zinc in the form of citrate in some people may cause ailments of the digestive system - nausea, appetite drop or stomachache. Zinc in the form of zinc citrate should be best taken between meals, due to the fact that many food products may limit the absorption of this element, especially products rich in phytates, dairy products or fiber.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Copper - trace mineral that facilitates the introduction of iron into hemoglobin, allowing the correct functioning of antioxidant processes. It is an important component of enzymes that affect the processes of aerobic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and in the formation of collagen. With proper diet, do not use supplements containing copper, as an overdose can cause insomnia, hair loss. It occurs in foods such as legumes, offal, plums, seafood. Copper compounds must be used in a responsible way, because many of them have toxic properties.
Dosing: A sufficient amount of copper provides proper diet.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
Chlorine (chemical element from the group of halogens) - in the natural form of gas it is poisonous and water-soluble (until recently used as a disinfectant in the water supply system, now replaced by fluorination). It is chemically active element. It is used in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium (KCl). It participates in the process of digestion and maintains acid-base balance in the body, removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver (antitoxin). Natural source of chlorine for the body is salt and bladderwrack.
Chlorine deficiency can occur due to excessive sweating, vomiting, causing digestive tract problems. It also causes loss of hair and teeth.
Excess chlorine, for example. Drink excessive amounts of chlorinated water, destroys bacterial flora and vitamin E.
Dosage: Daily dose should not exceed 15 grams.
Glucosamine sulphate (glucosamine) is an amino sugar present in cartilage matrix; compound needed for the glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, affecting its structure and flexibility, increasing immunity to overloads. Glucosamine is synthesized in the human body, it can be supplied from the outside (a component of shells of marine crustaceans, and in coatings for fungi) as supplements. Increased demand for glucosamine occurs in sports training (athletes exposed to overload the musculoskeletal system), during convalescence after injuries and contusions, moreover, in the case of older people in prevention and therapeutic of degenerative changes of the locomotor system. Glucosamine occurs as mono-preparation or multiple preparations (including, among others, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, collagen hydrolyzate and ascorbic acid) in supplementation in supporting the functioning of the musculoskeletal system, such as d-glucosamine sulphate 2KCl; HCL Poly NAG.
Dosage: 500-1500 mg per day.
Chondroitin sulfate has chondroitin in its composition, belonging to the glycosaminoglycans, affecting the maintenance of joint stability and strength (building component of cartilage). Chondroitin sulfate proteins involved with the synthesis of proteoglycans. It is synthesized in the body or delivered in the foods of animal origin (e.g. containing tissue). It is used by athletes in the disciplines greatly aggravating the locomotor system with exercises, as well as in the treatment of sports injuries and joint recovery and rehabilitation after injuries, increased demand also occurs in people of advanced age. In the sports supplementation is a component of multi-component combined supplements, often containing hyaluronic acid, glucosamine and hydrolysed collagen, supporting the functioning of the locomotor system.
Dosage: 500-1500 mg per day.
Flex Complex - a complex of ingredients enabling the operation of the locootor system responsible for the resistance of cartilage and intra-articular fluid viscosity, with anti-inflammatory properties. Components are: dimethyl sulfone (MSM), a source of organic sulfur, necessary for the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides; hyaluronic acid producing proteoglycan complexes absorbing water and ensuring proper functioning of the locomotor system, and bromelain, enzyme with anti-inflammatory properties. Flex Complex co-creates the formula of Orange Triad's Controlled Labs and complements the Joint Complex formula.
MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) - dimethyl sulfoxide derivative, wherein the sulphur content is as by creating structural bonds sylfhydrylowych stabilize the protein particles and ensuring the proper functioning of the tissue and its biological regeneration. MSM has anti-inflammatory activity (within the connective tissue, mucous membranes and digestive disorders). In the sports supplementation recommended for people with special physical activity and during convalescence after injuries. Also used in the prevention of treatment of diseases of old age. Available in multiple formulations, also containing chondroitin, hydrolyzed collagen, hyaluronic acid, extracts of vegetable dyes (turmeric), extracts of ginger root, ascorbic acid and minerals to support the functioning of the locomotor system.
Dosage: 250-1000 mg daily (customarily taken in sports supplementation).
Bromelain - an enzyme from the group of proteases. The source is the pineapple (pineapple Fructus Sativa) and pineapple leaves, containing bromelain in a form of a mixture of enzymes similar to pepsin and papain responsible for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds of protein. Bromelain in the first place, in the sports supplementation, increases the digestibility of proteins, especially in the case of high-protein diets and has anti-inflammatory and anti-edema. This prevents overloading on the digestive system and diarrhoea.
It is a component of supplements for athletes and supplements supporting musculoskeletal system.
Hyaluronic acid (sodium hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan, which do not form covalent bonds with proteins and does not contain sulfate groups. Creates so called proteoglycans aggregates absorbing water and which are responsible for the resistance of cartilage. It is one of the components responsible for the intra-articular fluid viscosity. It takes part in the regeneration of skin tissue. It is synthesized in the body providing a full daily demand. Supplementation applies to athletes exposed to overload of the locomotor system. It is a component of preparations supporting the regeneration of joints and tendons and cosmetics supporting the condition of hair, skin and nails.
Digestion and Immune Complex - a complex of supporting the functioning of the immune system and the digestive system, containing Echinacea purpurae, ginger root and quercetin. Echinacea has immunological properties, ginger root has anti-inflammatory, cholagogue stimulate the digestive system, the flavonoid quercetin slows down the activity of hyaluronidase protecting hyaluronic acid from degradation, protects blood vessel walls against the spread of pathogenic bacteria, is an antioxidant that improves blood circulation. Digestion and Immune Complex co-creates formulas of Controlled Labs - Orange Triad.
Echinacea Purpurea (Echinacea) - used in folk medicine as a tonic, immunizing and accelerating convalescence. It is a source of active compounds: flavonoids (including quercetin, rutoside), phenolic glycoside and chlorogenic acid. It is a potent antioxidant. Increases appetite, accelerating potential for weight gain (e.g. in weight sports). It is antipyretic. Applied externally, heals wounds and scratches. It is a component of herbal and herbal-vitamin properties which are improving immunity, supporting the exercise capacity (especially in martial arts).
Dosage: according to various sources can be used every day, or every two or three days.
Ginger root extract is an extract of ginger - plants occurring in tropical Asia and Australia, the Zingiberaceae famly, (in Zingiberaceae are also turmeric and cardamom which are just as ginger a valuable kitchen spice). Characterized by a high content of gingerols (phenylpropane derivatives), acting inflammatory, diaphoretic, warming, antioxidant reducing oxidation of LDL cholesterol and the deposition of atherosclerotic plaque on the walls of blood vessels. It is used in the reducing body fat supplements. In combination with glucosamine and curcumin it affects the regeneration of joints, treatment of musculoskeletal system injury and regeneration. In the sports supplementation pro-health and thermogenic potential of ginger root is used.
Dosage: 50-200 mg per day.
Quercetin - flavonoid glycoside, which is a natural pigment occurring in plant foods (fruits, vegetables and herbs). A particularly rich source of quercetin are apples, onions and tea. By inhibiting the hyaluronidase enzyme, it protects hyaluronic acid against returning into its monomer. It has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, strengthens the walls of blood vessels. It is an antioxidant. Causes a decrease in histamine showing an antiallergic action. It has anti-inflammatory potential. It is used to treat asthma, diabetes and for weight loss. The supplementation occurs only in combination with hesperidin, rutin and ascorbic acid, in health-related programs, supporting the immunity of the body in the form of creatine stacks and no-boosters. Available at the www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption recommended: as customary taken in sport
R-ALA (R-alpha-lipoic acid) active form, having improved properties, and the potential of bioactive lipoic acid (ALA). Its bioactive potential is used in medicine in the diabetic neuropathy and cardiovascular prevention (slows down the formation of atherosclerotic lesions). In the sports supplementation, the properties of the insulin metabolism stimulation are used (sensitivity to insulin and glucose levels in the blood) and antioxidant potential of R-ALA and the assimilation of nutrients, improvement of creatine transport, storage of glycogen and amino acids in muscle tissue. Acid R-ALA is available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and advanced amino acid products, creatine, no-boosters and vitaminizing supplements, for purchase at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: There are no standards of daily consumption
Bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus), is a plant of Polish coniferous forests containing medicinal raw materials: bilberry leaves (Folium Vaccinum myrtillusae) and bilberry fruit (Fructus Vaccinum myrttillusae). Fruits contain considerable amounts of catechine tannins, and anthocyanins, organic acids, carotenoids, pectin and vitamins (A, B2 and C, P), minerals (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium and iron), have significant nutritional value, and a significant effect on the regulation of the digestive process. Preparations from the leaves of bilberry are diuretic and disinfectant for the urinary tract, stimulate digestion and metabolism, they contain flavonoids, tannins, organic acids, minerals (e.g. manganese), triterpenes. They are used as insulin-mimetics. In addition, fruits have a disinfecting effect, antihemorrhagical, prevent the growth of worms. Carotenoids enhance vision, especially during the night and have anti-toxic potential, binding toxins in the gastrointestinal tract and excreting out of the body.
Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) - also known as bilberry. The raw production material are the fruits of berries (bilberry - Fructus Myrtylli) and leaves (Folium Myrtylli). Its fruits are a rich source of vitamins: ascorbic acid (vit. C), B vitamins, provitamin D, PP; micronutrients (zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, calcium and iron). They contain from 7 - 15% catechine tannin, myrtillin, organic acids (citric and malic). The leaves contain: anthocyanins, sugars, flavonoids and multi-phenolic acids, essential oil, minerals and trace elements. The most important ingredient of leaves is glucokinin, lowering blood sugar and inositol, supporting the reduction of adipose tissue and influencing the removal of disorders in the digestive system (antidiarrheal). Berries are a powerful antioxidant that supports the immune system. Leaves are used in the extracts improving the functioning of the circulatory system. It is a supplement for strengthening, detoxification and vitaminizing.
Pomegranate fruit extract – contains two substances valued for their health-promoting properties. First of them, punicalagins, are compounds from the group of ellagitannins whose molecules are quite big. They show strong antioxidant properties, both autonomous and thanks to its metabolites. They promote reduction in oxidative stress which is a factor stimulating cells apoptosis. Punicalagins can also reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
The second active component of the extract is punicic acid, also known as omega-5. It shows the ability of lipid profile optimisation. At the same time, it can increase the level of “good” HDL cholesterol and reduce the amounts of triglycerides in blood.
The pomegranate extract cannot be used together with preparations enhancing libido, as such a combination increases the risk of prapism effect (long and painful erection).
Grape seed extract is a valuable source of active ingredients: flavonoids, fatty acids, proanthocyanidins and vitamin E, an antioxidant, binding free radicals, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregating. It is a component of a pro-health supplements enhancing preventive treatment of the circulatory system diseases. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements or as a component of nutritional supplements (creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters), vitamin, herbal detoxificating.
Dosage: 50-100 mg per day.
Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) - bush growing wild or in gardens on the sandy areas in the northern hemisphere. Food ingredients are: raspberry fruit (Fructus Rubi idaei) and leaves (Folium Rubi idaei). Fruits contain organic acids (mainly ascorbic acid or vitamin C), sugars and pectin, vitamins A, B1, B2 and trace elements (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and iron). Infusions of fresh or dried fruit is used in colds and fever and digestive disorders of children and adolescents. The leaves are anti-inflammatory and antibacterial and relaxant on smooth muscles of the intestines, blood vessels and uterus. More effective action have raspberries growing wild on the edge of the forests. Juices and syrups, jams and liqueurs can be produced of the raspberries.
Lycopene, an organic compound, carotenoid form xanthophylls group, a natural dye of plant origin, colouring to bright red, occurring i.e. in tomatoes and carrots. It has the strongest antioxidant potential (relatively to the singlet oxygen) from the carotenes. It is not participating, in contrast to other carotenes, in the transformation of vitamin A. It reduces the risk of lung cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases of the circulatory system, it is a component of nutrient, vitaminizing, vitamin-mineralizing and functional supplements, (often in combination with beta-carotene, lutein) supporting reduction of body fat, improving skin complexion, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g / 24h
Lutein, a derivative of alpha-carotene is a natural plant dye, colouring in yellow, is also present in the yolk of egg. In the body, located primarily in the retina of the human eye (together with Zeaxanthin), it acts as a natural filter for the eye, absorbing ultraviolet radiation. It is a powerful antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and multi-compound supplements with antioxidant, protecting the eyes, action, as well as multivitamins, creatine stacks and no-boosters.
Vanadium (element, chemical symbol V, atomic no.. 23, subgroup vanadium) it is a microelement (trace element), not fully recognised. Studies carried out on animals show, that it inhibits the formation of bad cholesterol in the blood, preventing cardiac diseases. Activates the insulin receptor and allows for a reduction of blood glucose. It shows the effect of insulin and allows for transport of nutrients into the muscle tissue. Proper nutrition fulfils the body's need for vanadium, which means that there is no need to have it supplemented by synthetic means. The source of this micronutrient are fish.
Boron - an element of boron group, symbol B, atomic number (Z) - 5, belongs to a group of micronutrients. The organism, it is responsible for the synthesis of nucleic acids and prevents the release of excess calcium from the bones. Is an activator of enzymes in metabolism. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits (grapefruit, bitter orange), legumes, grapes, malt beer. The supplementation is rarely used, mostly in vitamin and a vitamin-mineralizing supplements.
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption. Excess of boron is toxic for the organism.
Boron citrate – what is it?
Boron citrate is a combination of citric acid and boron, a trace element, whose the most interesting and valuable property is stimulation of testosterone synthesis.
Scientific studies demonstrated that boron supplementation not only positively affects the increase in total testosterone level in men, but also can decrease the globulin level, which binds sex hormones (SHBG), which raises the levels of the bioactive free testosterone. Complementing boron in diet can protect menopausal women from the natural decline in androgens and estrogens levels. Thanks to that, it contributes to the reduction in osteoporosis risk, as sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, play an important role in maintaining high mineral density of bones.
Boron deficiencies can induce neurological symptoms, resembling symptoms of magnesium deficiencies, such as low activity of delta waves, which hinders relaxation. Boron deficiency deteriorates also cognitive functions.
Boron citrate can be found in complex preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl
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