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|Servings: 60 tab.|
This complex of vitamins and minerals is particularly recommended for seniors, athletes and everyone who wants to supplement deficiencies, especially in winter, when access to the natural forms of microcomponents is limited.
It is highly recommended that supplementation is accompanied by a proper diet, including hydration: at least 3-4 litres of clean water a day. That is because the product contains both fat- and water-soluble vitamins.
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Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Beta-carotene (provitamin A) is a fat-soluble form of vitamin A (retinol). It is a necessary vitamin for the development and acquisition of proteins, necessary to rebuild a bone structure. Irreplaceable in the treatment of eye diseases (prevents decrease of vision and so called night blindness). It strengthens the immune system. It is a strong oxidant. In its natural form it can be found found only in plants (unlike retinol, which is present in foods of animal origin) such as chard, squash, kale, carrots, apricots, tomatoes). Available in the form of supplements and nutrients as an essential component of the sports diet.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
D-alpha-tocopheryl succinate is a natural form of fat-soluble vitamin E that is one of the strongest antioxidants.
The source of vitamin E is very significant because synthetic forms are characterised by much lower bioavailability. Unlike natural forms (d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, d-alpha tocopheryl acetate and etc.), synthetic compounds are designated with the prefix “dl” (e.g. dl-alpha-tocopheryl succinate that is a completely synthetic form). Depending on the condition of the body, the absorption of natural vitamin E may vary from 20 to 70%.
In comparison with alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocopheryl acetate and alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate, it is believed that d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate is the most effective form of vitamin E, especially when it comes to anti-cancer effects. Vitamin E as d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate is a frequent ingredient of vitamin-mineral supplements which promote general health of the body and adds vitality.
D-alpha-tocopherol – a natural form of vitamin E which is indicated as the most optimum for supplementation. It helps correct effectively deficiencies of this compound which is extremely crucial for the human body.
Vitamin E is a very important bioactive substance found in many tissues and required for normal functioning of the body. Its deficiencies may be manifested by impaired cognitive abilities and vision, muscle weakness and infertility. It is involved in erythropoiesis and that is why its low intake may lead to anaemia.
In addition, vitamin E has an important role as an antioxidant in the human body. It has the ability to reduce the amount of free radicals, thereby decreasing negative oxidative stress.
During supplementation with d-alpha-tocopherol, we should remember that it belongs to fat-soluble compounds, along with vitamin A, D and K. Because of that, supplements with vitamin E should be taken with a fat-containing meal.
Vitamin B1 (thiamin, vitamin B) improves mental alertness and strengthens the nervous system ensuring the proper functioning of the brain. It improves cardiac and muscular system. It is suportive in the treatment of shingles. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Natural source of vitamin B1 are brown bread, yeast, eggs, raw vegetables, meat, milk, legumes, cheese.
Vitamin B1 deficiency hinders the processes of decomposition of sugars (catabolism), causes a loss of appetite and disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract, can cause polyneuritis and disease beriberi.
Dosage: Recommended daily intake is 1-2 mg.
Thiamine hydrochloride - a highly bioavailable form of thiamine, also called vitamin B1. Due to an important role that it plays in carbohydrate metabolism, its increased supply is recommended to people with excessively high concentration of sugar in blood. It facilitates their processing in the organism and supports the activities that aim at restoring optimal glycemia. An important role in the metabolism of nutrients is also played by an integral component of carboxylase coenzyme - thiamine pyrophosphate.
Some source suggest the effectiveness of thiamine in relation to the health of the cardiovascular system, apart from decreasing glucose level in blood, it is also reflected in optimization of blood pressure. Although this aspect of effectiveness of vitamin B1 requires further research, it is another argument demonstrating special needs of taking care of proper thiamine supply by people from the risk group of the circulatory system diseases.
Among people who are especially prone to vitamin B1 deficiencies there are also people fighting with excess weight and frequently drinking alcohol.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
What is pyridoxine hydrochloride?
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a basic, the most commonly used form of vitamin B6 in supplements and fortified foods. It is a vitamin soluble in water. It converts to the active form of the vitamin - pyridoxal phosphate.
Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. It takes part in the production of many neurotransmitters, such as GABA, serotonin and catecholamines and it takes part in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. It is an important factor for the process of the creation of red cells and hemoglobin and its deficit may be one of the factors causing anemia. This vitamin contributes to maintaining proper energy metabolism and is important for maintaining well-being and good psychological condition. Its presence supports the breakdown of pro-inflammatory homocysteine to cysteine and further metabolites, thanks to which it may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiological incidents.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride may be found in many vitamin B complexes and vitamin-mineral preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P-5-P) - the form of vitamin B6, called coenzymatic, considered the best assimilable form of this vitamin by the human organism. This is related to direct metabolic activity of pyridoxal-5-phosphate in the human organism. It does not have to be subjected to biochemical transformations in the organism in order to be able to enter metabolic pathways as a biologically active ingredient.
Vitamin B6 is an incredibly important factor regulating the work of many processes in the organism due to its role in the organism as a coenzyme, essential for the activation of many important enzymes. Thanks to this, it regulates metabolism at many levels and its proper supply is conducive to maintaining homeostasis of the organism.
Another aspect of effectiveness of vitamin B6 is its influence on the normalization of emotional states. It is conducive to relaxation, facilitates falling asleep and falling in a deep, the most valuable sleep. Special influence on P5P on the psyche is proven in women before menstruation, as it demonstrates considerable ability to reduce the symptoms of the pre-menstrual syndrome.
Supplementation with vitamin B6 also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system. It is conducive to the nourishment of neuronal tissues and optimizes the secretion of neurotransmitters, thanks to which it promotes nervous transmission and demonstrates neuroprotective properties. It was proven that vitamin B6 may decrease the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
Some sources also suggest the ability of pyridoxal 5-phosphate to reduce the risk of cancer. This effectiveness is noted especially in relation to breast cancer.
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9, is a synthetic form of naturally occurring folates. It needs to be transformed to folates in order to be biologically active also in the human organism. Therefore, its supplementation is recommended to people who do not have problems with methylation processes.
The majority of people associate folic acid with the period of pregnancy. It is definitely a justified association. Proper supply of vitamin B9 conditions correct development of the fetus and prevents disorders of neural tube defects in a baby.
Supplementation with folic acid also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system of adults. Some sources say that it is conducive to maintaining beneficial emotional states. Moreover, folic acid takes part in the process of erythropoiesis, thanks to which it enables efficient production of red cells.
Supplementation with folic acid should be also considered by men who deal with low sperm quality. It was proven that complementing the level of vitamin B9 is conducive to increasing reproductive abilities of men.
What is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF)?
5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) is a methylated, biologically active form of folate. It is especially willingly used by people with folic acid metabolism disorders, especially by polymorphisms of the gene coding the production of methyltetrahydrofolate reductase. Using this form allows to skip narrow gorge created by this polymorphism and enjoy all effects induced by folates. It is also a good substitute for synthetic folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid), which in clinical trials demonstrates the ability to increase the frequency of developing cancers.
Folates, also called vitamin B9 have a wide contribution to the development of the nervous system. They contribute to converting homocysteine to methionine and then to s-Adenosyl methionine, which is the main donor of methyl groups. Thanks to this, the condition of the circulatory system is increased, as the amount of pro-inflammatory homocysteine is decreased and the intensity of the production processes of creatine and neurotransmitter synthesis is higher, which is reflected in the reduction of fatigue and better psychological condition.
5-MTHF in mono-supplements and complex vitamin preparations may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Salt (sodium chloride, or table salt), natural source of electrolytes (chlorine and potassium), regulating water and electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body, affecting the nervous system and blood pressure. Sodium is an essential element for the proper growth. The proper dose of salt prevents overheating of the body and solar stroke. It provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves the body. Chlorine in combination with sodium, is involved in the digestive process and maintains acid-base balance in the body, as antitoxin removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver. Salt is a flavour component and preservative of many foods, nutritional supplements and mixtures of electrolytes, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: no specific standards of consumption, used so as to provide sufficient amount of electrolytes to the body (sodium and chloride).
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin soluble in liquids. Participates in the production of red blood cells and is essential in the absorption of iron by the body. It calming effect, a positive effect on concentration and memory. Intensifies its action in cooperation with folic acid (vitamin M). Usually occurs in animal products, fish and dairy products. It contains trace elements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, general and immunity weakness, inhibiting of growth and damage to the myelin sheath of nerves.
What is methylcobalamin?
Methylcobalamin is a biologically active form of vitamin B12. It is one of the two forms of this vitamin that may be used as cofactors in various reactions. It differs from popular cyanocobalamin in the presence of methyl group instead of cyanide, thanks to which it releases the organism from the need of neutralizing this harmful factor.
The methyl group from methylcobalamin may be transferred to homocysteine, thanks to which it comes back in the form of methionine in order to be further converted to SAMe, which is the main donor of methyl groups in our organism. These methyl groups may be then used in the processes of creatine production, in neurotransmitter metabolism and as DNA methylation, thanks to which we achieve proper energy level, better well-being and generally better condition of the organism. B12 is a coenzyme for three enzymes: isomerase, methyltransferase and dehalogenase.
Apart from the influence on the nervous system, the supply of vitamin B12 is also very important for the proper synthesis of red cells as well as hemoglobin and anemia prevention.
Methylcobalamin in mono-supplements and complex vitamin preparations may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Vitamin B5 (calcium pantothenate, pantothenic acid, pantotenol) is part of a complex of B vitamins affects the development of the central nervous system, is the building substance of cells. In the body synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It occurs in animal products (meat, kidneys, liver) and plants (wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, grains, green vegetables). Prevents fatigue and excessive stress, accelerates the healing of cuts and wounds, acts as a stimulant for the side effects of the use of antibiotics. Deficiency causes skin changes, and difficulty in blood clotting.
Calcium panthonenate – a salt of pantothenic acid and calcium used to raise the intake of this first substance, belonging to a group of compounds called vitamin B5. It is active in many biochemical processes in the human body as an extremely important factor for maintaining homeostasis.
Adequate intake of pantothenic acid helps maintain healthy metabolism of nutrients and obtain easily energy from them. Deficiencies of this compound may be manifested by chronic fatigue and lack of strength, especially in physically active persons.
What is more, pantothenic acid is present in the synthesis pathway of many vital hormones. Because of that, its sufficient supply is critical to hormonal balance. Testosterone is one of the hormones that are affected by pantothenic acid intake. Because of that, its deficiencies may have a negative effect on sexual function.
Pantothenic acid is also indicated to have a cardioprotective effect. It helps maintain normal cardiac function and reduces the risk of atherosclerosis by optimising the lipid profile.
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium oxide – the most common form of this macroelement in supplementation that is essential to the human body. It belongs to a group of key intracellular cations and that is why its adequate levels are critical to maintaining the body’s homeostasis. An active lifestyle increases requirements for magnesium and that is why its supplementation is recommended strongly to athletes.
The most common symptoms associated with magnesium deficiencies are muscle cramps and eye twitches. This is connected with a significant impact of magnesium ions on the efficiency of the nervous system. Its adequate intake helps maintain neuromotor fitness. Deficiencies of this element are also said to aggravate symptoms of depression.
What is more, magnesium supplementation supports healthy cardiovascular function. It is suggested that its deficiencies promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hypertension. Too low dietary magnesium intake is associated with arrythmia and increased risk of heart attack.
Magnesium supplements are recommended to individuals doing hard mental work and learning. Its healthy levels enhance focus and may facilitate learning. It has a beneficial impact on sleep quality.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Zinc citrate - an organic form of zinc with very good assimilability and bioavailability. In one molecule of zinc citrate, zinc ions constitute 34% of the compound’s mass. Therefore, 100 mg of the substance will provide 34 mg of zinc ions. It should be borne in mind when buying dietary supplements, in which only the mass of the whole compound in a portion is provided. Supplementation with zinc in the form of citrate in some people may cause ailments of the digestive system - nausea, appetite drop or stomachache. Zinc in the form of zinc citrate should be best taken between meals, due to the fact that many food products may limit the absorption of this element, especially products rich in phytates, dairy products or fiber.
Zinc monomethionine - zinc in an innovative form of amino acid chelate, which is the combination of zinc ion with the molecule of methionine. Supplementation with zinc in the form of chelate brings many benefits, as this combination is stable and well-assimilable by the organism. Some data suggests higher ease of permeation through intestinal walls and better absorption of zinc in the chelated form. Methionine is the easiest absorbed amino acid by the organism, which contributes to good bioavailability of the connection of this compounds with zinc.
Zinc monomethionine is the component of the popular supplement ZMA, which is the combination of zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6. Zinc in the chelated form may disturb the assimilation of antibiotics from the group of tetracyclines and quinolone antibiotics (e.g. ciprofloxacin). In this case, the antibiotic should be taken 2 hours before or after the application of zinc monomethionine.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
Inositol is an organic compound from the group of B vitamins soluble in fluids, present in the natural or synthetic form, synthesized in plants, such as brewer's yeast, beans, grapefruit, cabbage, sprout of wheat, melons and animal (liver). Along with choline is included in the lecithin. It affects the cell nutrition of the central nervous system (brain) by reducing the level of LDL (bad cholesterol), this makes it applicable in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. It has a calming effect. There has been a beneficial effect of inositol on the skin and hair reported.
ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a vitamin-like substance, a metabolite of catecholamines with strong antioxidant properties, it enhances anti-free-radicals action of some vitamins (A and E). ALA is synthesized at low levels by the body. It is a component of such products as broccoli, yeast, chicken liver, spinach. In the medicine it is used in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy (tissues shows a sensitivity to the insulin hormone, and it stimulates blood sugar levels). It has a positive effect on the functioning of the circulatory system and heart by the anti-arteriosclerosis action. It improves transport of creatine. It affects the storage of glycogen in muscle and liver.
Antioxidant properties of ALA are used in sports supplementation, along with the assimilation of nutrients. ALA is found in the form of mono-formula and is a compound of multicomponent products as: amino acids, creatine nitrogen boosters, as well as insulin-like (insulin-mimetic substances).
Mixed tocopherols - a method of complementing vitamin E, commonly used in supplementation, encompassing tocopherols and tocotrienols. The compounds from the group of vitamin E belong to the substances soluble in fats, therefore they should be taken with fats.
The main activity of vitamin E in the organism is its activity as antioxidant. It demonstrates the ability to neutralize free radicals and consequently to reduce oxidative stress. In this way, it positively influences the state of tissues of the organism. Supplementation with antioxidants is indicated as an effective method of delaying the signs of aging and it may demonstrate anticancer properties. Apart from this, supplementation with vitamin E, thanks to its antioxidant properties, positively influences the absorption of some other biologically active compounds.
Supplementation with vitamin E also demonstrates cardioprotective properties. Its proper concentration in blood prevents the pathological breakdown of erythrocytes, increases endurance of blood vessel walls and decreases the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
For maximal absorption and effectiveness, vitamin E should not be used with vitamin K and supplements containing iron.
Quercetin - flavonoid glycoside, which is a natural pigment occurring in plant foods (fruits, vegetables and herbs). A particularly rich source of quercetin are apples, onions and tea. By inhibiting the hyaluronidase enzyme, it protects hyaluronic acid against returning into its monomer. It has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, strengthens the walls of blood vessels. It is an antioxidant. Causes a decrease in histamine showing an antiallergic action. It has anti-inflammatory potential. It is used to treat asthma, diabetes and for weight loss. The supplementation occurs only in combination with hesperidin, rutin and ascorbic acid, in health-related programs, supporting the immunity of the body in the form of creatine stacks and no-boosters. Available at the www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption recommended: as customary taken in sport
Phosphatidylcholine – a group of phospholipids whose molecule contains choline. It can be synthesised endogenously in the human body, is a building block of cell membranes and thus influences beneficially their functioning. Since it is found commonly in the body, phosphatidylcholine supplementation shows many health benefits.
This phospholipid has a beneficial impact on the functioning of liver tissues. It has hepatoprotective properties, consequently preventing damage to this organ caused by toxic agents, and helps treat its diseases. It reduces oxidative stress in the liver and has therefore a beneficial impact on the viability of hepatocytes.
Because of the presence of phosphatidylcholine molecules in cell membranes, whose efficiency is critical to maintaining normal neurotransmission, this compound is indicated to influence positively neuronal function. It is suggested that phosphatidylcholine may be effective especially in disorders associated with too low acetylcholine concentrations in the body.
It is also said to promote lipolysis. Such activity of this compound is observed only in topical administration. There are no reliable sources which describe that this phospholipid is capable of speeding up body fat loss in oral delivery.
Lutein, a derivative of alpha-carotene is a natural plant dye, colouring in yellow, is also present in the yolk of egg. In the body, located primarily in the retina of the human eye (together with Zeaxanthin), it acts as a natural filter for the eye, absorbing ultraviolet radiation. It is a powerful antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and multi-compound supplements with antioxidant, protecting the eyes, action, as well as multivitamins, creatine stacks and no-boosters.
Zeaxanthin is a natural plant dye, a compound classified as carotenoids found in foods of plant origin, essential for the proper functioning of vision. Located on the retina, the so-called. yellow macula, it is responsible for visual acuity. Together with lutein (belonging to the carotenoid) it is an antioxidant, also it has the ability to absorb energy of blue light protecting eyes from organ damage.
Zeaxanthin is a component of formulations (often in combination with other carotenoids) enhancing the functioning of the organs of sight.
Dosage: Up to 2 mg per day.
Apigenin is an organic chemical compound belonging to flavones, isolated for the first time in 1914 from chamomile herb. It is commonly found in grapefruits, oranges, onions, parsley and in many popular spices, such as oregano, thyme, basil, coriander, and cloves.
Apigenin has a number of pro-health properties – it has been proven to show anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and neuroprotective effects. It also seems to have the ability to stimulate neurogenesis in the adult brain.
Apigenin is used not only for pro-health purposes. It is also a valued element of sports supplementation. Researchers have shown that it acts as an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CD38. Inhibition of their activity translates into an increase in the level of NAD + in the body, which helps to maintain normal body mass, positively affects the physical condition and slows down the aging process of the body. In addition, apigenin may inhibit the expression of the aromatase enzyme, thus contributing to an increase in testosterone levels.
Supplements most often contain Apigenin isolated from grapefruit; chamomile extracts, standardized for the content of apigenin (usually 1%), are less common. It is also available in the form of a mono-preparation and sometimes it can be found in the composition of preparations for athletes.
Dosage: no standards of unit consumption.
In case of apigenin derived from grapefruit, a dose of 50 mg per day is usually used, and in case of chamomile flower extracts (standardized to 1% of apigenin), the recommended dose is about 500 mg.
Boron - an element of boron group, symbol B, atomic number (Z) - 5, belongs to a group of micronutrients. The organism, it is responsible for the synthesis of nucleic acids and prevents the release of excess calcium from the bones. Is an activator of enzymes in metabolism. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits (grapefruit, bitter orange), legumes, grapes, malt beer. The supplementation is rarely used, mostly in vitamin and a vitamin-mineralizing supplements.
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption. Excess of boron is toxic for the organism.
Lycopene, an organic compound, carotenoid form xanthophylls group, a natural dye of plant origin, colouring to bright red, occurring i.e. in tomatoes and carrots. It has the strongest antioxidant potential (relatively to the singlet oxygen) from the carotenes. It is not participating, in contrast to other carotenes, in the transformation of vitamin A. It reduces the risk of lung cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases of the circulatory system, it is a component of nutrient, vitaminizing, vitamin-mineralizing and functional supplements, (often in combination with beta-carotene, lutein) supporting reduction of body fat, improving skin complexion, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g / 24h
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