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It is best to take the preparation about an hour before the planned mental activity.
In case of any diseases (including bronchial asthma) or taking medications, consult a physician or pharmacist before using the preparation.
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Galantamine is an alkaloid of natural origin, obtained from bulbs of snowdrops, easily crossing blood-brain barrier and having the ability to reversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase.
According to the cholinergic hypothesis, currently considered the most probable, Alzheimer's disease is caused by disorders of the cholinergic system. Decreased amount of acetylcholine is also observed. On the basis of this phenomenon, galantamine is applied to patients with Alzheimer’s-type torpor as a medicine.
The mechanism of activity of galantamine is based on increasing the level of acetylcholine - a neurotransmitter taking part in nerve impulse transmission, both in the central and peripheral nervous system. By blocking the enzyme which breaks it down, i.e. acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the increase of the concentration of acetylcholine in the brain takes place.
As an ingredient of dietary supplements, galantamine finds application as a nootropic substance, optimizing cognitive abilities, sharpening senses, improving memory, attention and motivation. Moreover, it is distinguished by a relaxing effect, thanks to which it works well when applied in the evening, facilitating deep and high-quality sleep.
Coluracetam (BCI-540, MKC-231) is a synthetic chemical compound of the racetam family. It was designed as a drug for Alzheimer’s disease in 2005 in Japan. Subsequently, it was in-licensed by BrainCell Inc., which conducted the largest number of studies on antidepressant potential of this compound. Nowadays, the agent is enjoying great popularity in the world of medicine and supplementation – apart from nootropic properties, characteristic of all racetams, it has a beneficial impact on mood and treats anxiety-depressive disorders.
The basic mechanism of action of coluracetam is to stimulate the so-called HACE (high-affinity choline uptake). It is critical to the delivery of choline to neurons where it may be converted into acetylcholine. It is commonly known that it is essential to memory formation, is responsible for the process of learning and enhances focus.
Scientists suggest that coluracetam modulates AMPA receptors. It is also important for mental performance. Furthermore, the stimulation of these receptors leads to a better mood and helps eliminate panic attacks.
In supplementation, coluracetam is used alone or in combination with other nootropic substances.
Dosage: No official guidelines.
The most frequently recommended dosage varies from 20 to 200 mg daily.
Centrophenoxine (meclofenoxate hydrochloride) is a substance designed as an ester of dimethylethanolamine (DMAE) and synthetic para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (pCPA) by scientists from the French National Center for Scientific Research. It was intended to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, it is as a dietary supplement in many countries and commonly used as a nootropic agent.
The exact mechanism of action of centrophenoxine still remains a mystery. Scientists agree that the substance easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, consequently increasing acetylcholine levels in synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, it boosts cerebral circulation, thereby increasing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain and speeding up the elimination of toxins. In addition, it is believed to have antioxidant properties.
Centrophenoxine is also used to improve memory and cognitive functions. It has been observed to significantly increase mental performance, promote focus, speed up thought processes and aid learning. It also boosts energy and motivation levels in many individuals.
Dosage: No Recommended Dietary Allowance was set.
The most common daily dosage is from 200 to 500 mg.
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