Vitamins - organic compounds necessary for the metabolic processes supplied in the diet or by supplementation. Because of the way of absorption, are divided fir: fat-soluble (A [retinol, beta-carotene, provitamin A], D [D1 - calciferol, D2 - ergocalciferol, D3 cholecalciferol), E (tocopherol), K (K1 - filochin. K2 - menaquinone, K3 - menadione) and water-soluble (B1 - thiamine, B2 - riboflavin, B6 - pyridoxine, B12 - cyanocobalamin, C - ascorbic acid, H - biotin, B3 - niacin, and pantothenic acid, and folic acid). Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in tissues and organs, which is why their careful consumption is advised, while water-soluble vitamins should be provided with food or through vitaminizing daily supplementation.
Minerals, the residue after burning tissues, ashes, constitute approx. 4% of the weight of human. They are divided into: microelements, the elements present in the human organism in an amount of less than 100 g / 24 (including chromium, zinc, fluorine, iodine, manganese, copper, selenium, iron), some of which are in the residual form - as trace elements ; macronutrients or elements that exceed 0.01% by weight, and the demand exceeds 100 mg / 24h (such as chlorine, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulphur, sodium, calcium). All components are an essential part of the diet and must be provided either in a natural form of food or as supplements.